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Running head: SHORTENED VERSION OF YOUR TITLE 1
Full Title of Your Project: Rough Draft
ENG122: English Composition II
Instructor FirstName LastName
Monday Day, Year
SHORTENED VERSION OF YOUR TITLE 2
Full Title of Your Project: Rough Draft
Write your paper in a well-structured essay format and utilize the writing center’s
structure guidelines and APA guides to help you. Use your outline as a roadmap so you stay on
track. Remember to keep your eye on the big picture, too. Your overall argument, as described in
your thesis statement, must be clearly communicated in each paragraph. End the introduction
paragraph with your thesis statement.
Begin each body paragraph with a topic sentence. Remember, your introduction and
conclusion will discuss the full argument at a high level, but your body paragraphs will each
explore one piece of the argument. Support every claim with cited evidence from credible
sources, and discuss the information in the context of your argument. Make sure all your pieces
fit to create the complete argument. Reach out to the writing center tutors any time you would
like some one-on-one support. Give the draft your best effort, but do not pressure yourself to be
perfect. There will be plenty of time for revision and editing in Weeks 4 and 5.
SHORTENED VERSION OF YOUR TITLE 3
Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Year). Title of article with sentence case capitalization. Title of
Periodical with Title Case Capitalization, V#(I#), p#-p#. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of online article with sentence case capitalization. Title of
Web Periodical with Title Case Capitalization, V#(I#). Retrieved from
Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of newspaper article with sentence case capitalization.
Title of Newspaper with Title Case Capitalization, pp. A1, B2-B3
Author, D. D. (Year, Month Day). Title of online newspaper article with sentence case
capitalization. Title of Newspaper with Title Case Capitalization. Retrieved from
Author, E. E. (Year). Title of physical book with sentence case capitalization. Location:
Author, F. F. (Year). Title of digital book with sentence case capitalization.
Corporate or Government Organization. (Year). Title of report or document with sentence case
capitalization. Retrieved from https://www.onlinelocation.gov
Running Header: RESEARCH OUTLINE 1
Research Outline: Effectiveness of Zero Waste in sustaining an environment
RESEARCH OUTLINE 2
Effectiveness of Zero Waste in creating a Sustainable Environment
Research Question: What impact does Zero Waste have in the environment
PART I 🙁 Introduction)
Zero waste is an approach to the environment that eliminates wastes from its source to other
chains (Curran and Williams 2012).
A. Background Information
Globally, there is an increased volume of solid waste that estimates 11 billion tons per
year. 3.4-4billion of these tons are obtained from natural resources (Chalmin and
Gaillochet, 2009). Managing solid waste has become a significant problem in the current
world (Seng et a, 2010). Thus has received multiple proposals, including Zero-waste
practices. The increased focus on waste has triggered pressure among authorities to attain
environmental sustainability (Cheng and Hu, 2010). Solid waste has not received as much
emphasis (Menikpura et al. 2012); thus, there are gaps in solid management that are
believed can be addressed through zero waste practices (Bartl 2011). Zero waste is a
practice that encourages the recycling of waste products (Zaman, 2014; Young et al.,
B. Thesis Statement: Zero waste is an effective practice of solid waste management. It is
cheaper, conserves our resources, reduces climate impact, minimizes manufacturing
emissions, discourages deforestation activities and encourages substitution of safer
II: Subtopic One
RESEARCH OUTLINE 3
A. Zero waste conserves our environment by conserving resources.
1. Using waste items is avoiding the extraction of raw materials that rely on a more
substantial amount of energy.
2. Processing used items to useful products is cheaper than processing new materials.
B. Wastes as ready Raw materials
1. Recycled products keep waste away from landfills or incinerators but rather become
raw materials to the manufacturers.
III: Subtopic Two
A. Zero waste reduces climate impact on the environment
1. Reusing, recycling products minimizes the production of greenhouse gases. EPA
of the United States discovered that the production of goods causes 42 % of
greenhouse effects. Also, Oregon and Portland prioritized zero waste to reduce
2. Recycling conserves energy used in producing new products, thus, reducing
carbon dioxide from power plants. Besides, composting pulls down carbon and
have it stored in the soil than in the atmosphere(Pietzsch, Ribeiro and
B. Zero waste enhances the reduction of methane trapped in landfills.
1. Methane from landfills makes up 84times heat from the atmosphere. Reducing
methane by freeing organic from landfills prevents methane emissions, which is a
climate benefit. Landfills have been the main source of methane (Crawford and
RESEARCH OUTLINE 4
IV: Subtopic Three
A. Zero waste encourages substitute for safer products.
1. Through reusing, people can reject products manufactured for a dump and prompt
manufacturers to redesign for better efficiency.
B. Zero waste promotes Product recovery
1. Recovering like 90% of discards by 2030 will reduce GHG (Song et al., 2008).
Consequently, states like the US will have nearly 20% of its coal-fired power plants
V. Subtopic Four
A. Zero waste discourages deforestation and land degradation
1. Use of wastes as resources than trees which is a resource
2. Reusing items than using lands for a new manufacturing process.
Zero waste is a useful practice for solid waste management and contains environmental
benefits. Zero waste conserves resources, reduces pollution, and deforestation. Also, zero
waste is a cheaper method, reduces climate impact, minimizes manufacturing emissions,
discourages deforestation activities, and encourages the substitution of safer products. States
like Oregon, the US, and Portland are considered a solution to the climate and environmental
RESEARCH OUTLINE 5
Bartl, A. (2011). Barriers towards achieving a zero-waste society. Waste
Management, 12(31), 2369-2370.
Crawford, R. H., Mathur, D., & Gerritsen, R. (2017). Barriers to improving the
environmental performance of construction waste management in remote communities. Procedia
Engineering, 196, 830-837.
Cheng, H., & Hu, Y. (2010). Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of
energy: Current and future practices in China. Bioresource technology, 101(11), 3816-3824.
Pietzsch, N., Ribeiro, J. L. D., & de Medeiros, J. F. (2017). Benefits, challenges and
critical factors of success for Zero Waste: A systematic literature review. Waste
Management, 67, 324-353.
Li, W., Zusman, E., Chen, J., & Menikpura, N. (2017). 6.2 Suzhou, China. Urbanization
and Climate Co-Benefits: Implementation of win-win interventions in cities, 204.
Song, Q., Li, J., & Zeng, X. (2015). Minimizing the increasing solid waste through zero
waste strategy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 104, 199-210.
Zaman, A. U. (2015). A comprehensive review of the development of zero waste
management: lessons learned and guidelines. Journal of Cleaner Production, 91, 12-25.
Total Possible Score: 10.00
Distinguished – Claims are developed through logical reasoning and based on credible evidence from at least the minimum
number of sources required. Argument is cohesive, complete, and answers the research question.
Proficient – Most claims are developed through logical reasoning and/or based on credible evidence from the minimum number of
sources required. Argument is fairly cohesive, complete, and relevant to the research question.
Basic – Many claims are developed through logical reasoning and/or based on credible evidence from an adequate number of
sources. Argument is somewhat cohesive but may not be complete or focused on the research question.
Below Expectations – Few or no claims are developed through logical reasoning and/or based on credible evidence from an
adequate number of sources. Argument is not cohesive and may not be aligned to the research question.
Non-Performance – The argument development is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment
Distinguished – Voice is appropriate for the situation. Argument is tailored to an academic audience.
Proficient – Academic voice is developing. Argument is appropriate for an academic audience.
Basic – Academic voice is emerging. Argument may be more appropriate for a non-academic audience.
Below Expectations – Academic voice is not apparent. Argument is not suited to an academic audience.
Non-Performance – The rhetorical development is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment
Distinguished – Outline is organized, well-structured, and meets length requirements.
Proficient – Outline shows some organization, is properly structured, and meets length requirements. Some revision may be
required before moving on to the drafting stage.
Basic – Outline may have some organizational and structure issues but meets the length requirement. Revisions are suggested
before moving on to the drafting stage.
Below Expectations – Outline is not well organized, lacks proper structure, and/or does not meet the length requirement.
Revisions will be necessary before moving on to the drafting stage.
Non-Performance – The outline is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.
Argument Development Total: 2.00
Rhetorical Development Total: 2.00
Structure and Organization Total: 2.00
Distinguished – Written work appears to be original. Sources are expertly integrated and cited accurately.
Proficient – Written work appears to be original. Sources are properly integrated and cited appropriately. Minor errors in citations
Basic – Written work appears to be original. Sources are integrated with attempt at accurate citation. Relevant errors in citations
Below Expectations – Written work appears to contain some unoriginal writing. Sources may be used without proper integration
Non-Performance – The ethical integration of sources is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment
Distinguished – Writing is clear, correct, and easy to read. A reader will have no trouble understanding this document.
Proficient – Writing is mostly clear, correct, and easy to read. Minor errors in mechanics and/or grammar may concern the reader.
Additional proofreading may help correct mistakes.
Basic – Writing is readable but with errors. Mechanical and/or grammatical errors may undermine the appeal to ethos. Additional
editing and proofreading can help correct these issues.
Below Expectations – Writing is somewhat readable but may have some significant mechanical and/or grammatical errors. The
audience may have trouble understanding some passages. Improvement in writing skill, editing, and proofreading is needed.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Distinguished – Font, margins, spacing, title block, headers, alphanumeric format, and other elements are consistent with the
required style guide.
Proficient – Font, margins, spacing, title block, headers, alphanumeric format, and other elements are nearly consistent with the
required style guide.
Basic – Font, margins, spacing, title block, headers, alphanumeric format, and other elements are not wholly consistent with the
required style guide. Future improvement is needed.
Below Expectations – Font, margins, spacing, title block, headers, alphanumeric format, and other elements do not follow the
required style guide. Significant improvement is needed.
Non-Performance – The page layout and formatting are nonexistent or lack the components described in the assignment
Academic Honesty & Source Integration Total: 2.00
Writing Skills/Grammar/Mechanics Total: 1.00
Page Layout and Formatting Total: 1.00
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