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Work on transition, the overall organization of the sections and make sure it reads like a whole project. Rewrite the introduction part, start with a hook i.e. interesting little story and lead to further topic.

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Remake all the references been used using CSE formate, list on a single page.

Introduction:

 

Most farmers like to use insecticide, so they forget that spraying chemicals can harm useful insects. Besides, if the number of aphids doubles, spraying costs can be expensive, and yield losses can be high (Elhag, and Horn). In addition, some aphids are resistant to insecticides. Economists are working with entomologists to introduce natural enemies such as chicken and Aphelinus Certus (tiny wasp). These predators are less expensive and lower aphid colonization, reducing later occurrence. The entomologist and economist consider these natural enemies as the most economical and effective methods of pest control.

 

Field of Study:

 

Economics is the study of insufficiency, the learning of how public use resources, and answer to incentives. This can be personal decisions, domestic, corporate, or societal decisions.

Microeconomics-this focuses on how person and company make decisions on prices, best trade, on supply and demand, on the cost of production of good and services. Macroeconomics is an overall national and international economic level. Economics is classified as a social science. The relation between economics and sociology. Economists’/Scientists’ deals with only social relationships, which are economical while sociologists’ main interest is on all facts of systematized human activity (“Economic Entomology – Encyclopedia” [date unknown]). This relation shows a more in-depth view of human behavior than other disciplines.

The study of economics helps society to know the problem of scarcity. Each community has a choice on how to use their resources. The study also helps society in the labor division and specialization. The public will be able to identify the people who are the best technicians and divide the workforce to produce more to deal with the shortage. Professional economists, banking, accountancy, business, and financial consultancy, in the public sector, among others.

As a trained economist, it helps to research and analyze information, issues, and social phenomena. It helps the public to look for financial advisers in banking activities. Public sector economists support the federal tax, transportation, business and waste services, energy, and various government spending. Most farmers like to use insecticide, so they forget that spraying chemicals can harm useful insects. Besides, if the number of aphids doubles, spraying costs can be expensive, and yield losses can be high (Elhag, and Horn 1983). In addition, some aphids are resistant to insecticides. Economists are working with entomologists to introduce natural enemies such as chicken and Aphelinus Certus (tiny wasp). These predators are less expensive and lower aphid colonization, reducing later occurrence. The entomologist and economist consider these natural enemies as the most economical and effective methods of pest control.

 

Critical Issue:

Organic farmers suffer several exasperating setbacks due to crop pests and diseases. The battle with pests is an ongoing struggle, with farmers frequently employing the use of pesticides. However, the use of chemical pesticides has been a thorny issue as it brings harm to the environment. Pesticides are adverse to their surroundings and produce full-size damage to ecosystems. Insecticides and herbicides may be harmful to non-target species. Pesticides pollute the air, water, and soil. For these reasons, organic farmers are looking to alternative solutions to control crop pests without the use of chemicals. Farmers are embracing various methods, including the use of trap crops, chicken, and bugs to battle the crop pests.

Nevertheless, this method has been successful in small organic farms. Using these methods would be obsolete in large scale farms. In large organic farms, insects such as the Soybean aphids can damage a large number of crops at a high rate. However, recent studies show that the use of parasitic wasp(Aphelinus certus) against pests is a suitable strategy. Aphelinus certus assists farmers in clearly controlling vegetation by killing those insects, which might be dangerous to the crops (Wei et al., 2007. By doing so, these beneficial insects contribute to reduce the insect pest populations and thereby help growers enhance their discipline and lawn produce. Parasitic wasps will allow the farmer to past the use of chemicals, which is disconcerting to the environment. However, the use of tiny wasps and weevils is a significant concern to farmers and broader stakeholders. Arguably, parasitic wasps can also kill beneficial insects and bring an imbalance to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, the discovery is of much significance as it maintains the delicate balance between environmental protection and profitable business. Farmers will cut costs on buying chemical pesticides while protecting the environment in one way or the other.

Featured Insect:

 

The Aphelinus certus are parasites to the soya beans aphids. Soya beans aphids pose a significant threat to the production of the soya beans since they disrupt the growth and production of the soya beans (Barbosa 1998). In this case, the fact that the Aphelinus certus is a parasite to the soya beans aphids implies that the insect may be used in the control of the aphids ensuring that the soya beans will and is an essential food within the region (Smith 2020). Aphids have made the production of record an increased productivity. Soya beans in Asia are used for human consumption the various foods difficult in the area and therefore raising the need for the control of the pests. Controlling biologically may require the use of certain insects that will predate on the aphids allowing the production of the various crops possible. Aphelinus certus, having the ability to be a parasite to the various aphids, has been heavily utilized in recent years within the region to bio control the aphids and thus facilitating the development of the crops.

This is a parasitoid wasp that is native to the Asian continent. Aphelinus certus is a parasite to the various aphids’ breeds, including the soya beans aphids (Acton 2012). The insect belongs to the Animalia kingdom, Arthropoda phylum, Insecta class, Hymenoptera order, Aphelinidae family, Aphelinus genus, and the A. certus species. Aphelinus certus remains to be its scientific name.

The life cycle of the insect commences at the moment that the female insect locates a viable host where oviposition then occurs. Oviposition refers to the process of laying eggs, which are mostly used in the production of many insects. In most cases, the Aphelinus certus prefer juveniles for their oviposition, ensuring that they produce their most considerable offspring in the case the oviposition occurs in hosts at the third instar of development. See appendices 1 for the lifecycle of the insect; Soon after the oviposition occur, the larva will then utilize the host as the source of energy to develop inside the host. The host, as well, ensures that the caterpillar is safe, ensuring that it reaches the development stage. The host, despite the deposition of several larvae, just one will emerge as the host has the resources for the development of a single worm. The hosts make use of chemicals that are responsible for the suppression of the growth of the host during the early developmental stages of the larvae forms of the insect. The host will release a fully developed pupa that is already ready to mate or get a host. Al pupa generally has shorter gestation periods on the basis of their small body sizes as compared to the females. Males remain in the patch at the moment they energy making them ready to mate with the females when they come along. Scientifically, the eggs that are laid by the adult insects that are fertilized develop to females in the case they are fed, and in the fact they are not fertilized, they will develop to males.

 

Insect-human Connection:

 

Aphelinus Certus belongs to the Animalia kingdom. The female Aphelinus certus produces sex pheromone, which attracts their male counterpart in autumn. Produced pheromone, can, therefore, attract Soybean aphids dispersing towards their host plant during the winter season. Moreover, during the migration to a winter host plant, the population of Soybean aphids increases, and this dispersing may lead to plant deterioration (Vacante & Kreiter, 2017). In Canada, Aphelinus Certus is considered as most common parasitism of soybean aphid. This essay will discuss how aphelinus certus predates on soybean aphids.

The farmers enjoy the mutual relationship with aphelinus certus in that, and the insect is in use to scare the aphids. Therefore it is a positive kind of link. Both insects and the farmer benefits from the process.  Farmer’s crops and farms are protected from the aphids, while aphelinus certus enjoys the predation as it’s a source of food. By using aphelinus certus, technique is found to be cost-effective.  Farmers especially those who practice vegetable farming incur significant costs in controlling insects such as aphids. However, insects such as wasps help farmers in a great way through biological pest control which results in lower cost of production for the farmers.

Furthermore, it is an environment –friendly in that, and a farmer uses domestic reared chicken to predate on aphids of Soybeans (Heimpell & Mills, 2017).  Negatively, the Aphelinus Certus is seen parasitizing the aphids that are harmful to agricultural activities. Several kinds of research have been carried on to determine how the Aphelinus Certus can be used in biological control by farmers.

This method of pest control is yet to be accepted globally (Follett & Duan, 2012). It exhibits side effects in biodiversity via predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, and also the attack on other species that are not targeted. Though the technique is not fully employed globally, farmers found it a suitable method of pest control in that, and the plan does not affect their stable or perennial environment.

In the essay, biological pest control has been employed by most farmers who are opting in using the pest control since it does not affect environment; for instance, the use of pesticides is limited as it degrades the surroundings. There exist a significant relationship between nature and human being whereby researches are conducted to offer the precautions on how the method can be fulfilled at satisfaction of the farmer, and also to found the impacts Aphelinus Certus has by parasitizing the aphids.

 

References:

 

  1. Elhag EA, Horn DJ. Resistance of Greenhouse Whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) to Insecticides in Selected Ohio Greenhouses. Journal of Economic Entomology. 1983;76(4):945–948. doi:10.1093/jee/76.4.945
  2. com. Menu of ITA Websites. [accessed 2020 May 17]. https://theodora.com/encyclopedia/e/economic_entomology.html.
  3. Wei, J., Wang, L., Zhu, J., Zhang, S., Nandi, O. I., & Kang, L. (2007). Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexanol. PLOS One, 2(9).

 

  1. Acton, Q. 2012. Issues in Environmental Research and Application. Internet resource.
  2. Barbosa, P. 1998. Conservation Biological Control. San Diego: Academic Press. Internet resource.
  3. Smith, C. 2020. “A Brief Introduction To Insect Biology And Conservation With Special Attention To Prescribed Fire Effects — Field Ecology”. Field Ecology, https://www.fieldecology.com/blog/insects-and-fire.
  4. G, Gurr, first, . Success in Conservation Biological Control of Arthropods. 2000 [accessed 2020May15]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4014-0_4

Issues in Environmental Research and Application: 2013 Edition. ScholarlyEditions; 2013.

  1. Follett, P. A., & Duan, J. J. (2012). Nontarget effects of biological control. Springer Science & Business Media.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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