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Women Inequality and Politics

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Women Inequality and Policy

There are persistent gaps in women’s participation in economic and political aspects. As indicated by Milazzo, A., and Goldstein, M. (2019, 39), patriarchal social structures persist in the modern world and continue to influence the engagement of females in politics. In this regard, there is a traditional influence that encourages the formulation of discriminatory laws that help in increasing gender inequalities and the existing gap in the aspect. Although reforms and increasing awareness of the current situation have a significant effect on the pursuit of equality, prominent challenges persist. Mackay, F. (2004, 108) takes a feminist approach to examining the issue. Using various case studies, the research examines the role of feminism in increasing political participation globally. In this regard, multiple aspects such as advocacy and increased rates of awareness are vital in enhancing the number of females engaging in political activities. Nonetheless, compared to men, women are still behind and require support to attain higher levels of equality. Promoting social welfare through inclusivity is vital in encouraging participation.

There is a significant association between political involvement and the status of women. As indicated by Kassa, S. (2015, 15), the level of participation of females in policymaking is a vital predictor of how a state treats women in society. As a result, in countries with a more significant number of female representatives, the levels of inequality are likely to be low, as indicated by inclusion, respect, and policies that promote gender equality. Using a qualitative research method, the study examined the challenges that women face in participating in politics. Consistent with the findings by Kantola, J., and Lombardo, E., (2019, 29), prominent aspects include economic, social, cultural, as well as religious elements. Moreover, other components within the community, such as the overall consideration of gender issues in the state, are also vital. In a majority of cases, women continue to occupy traditional roles, particularly in the developing world. Gender roles that restrict females to particular tasks are also prominent sources of a hindrance as such elements also inform policymaking. Compared to the developed world, feminist movements and women advocacy are useful.

Politics is a gendered profession with significant impediments that discourage female participation. Celis, K. et al. (2013, 55) examine the concept from the discipline of political science, emphasizing the crucial role of gender in shaping the perceptions of the people, the methods of organization, patterns of thought, and the understanding of global challenges. Using case studies and the review of existing research over the last one hundred years, the primary thesis is that despite a significant development in gender inclusivity, the precedence set by early feminists is not complete. As a result, there is a necessity for more effort to attain higher levels of participation. At the same time, Lovenduski, J. (1997, 60) examines patterns of involvement in civic activities, such as voting and the role of gender in discriminating female voters. In such cases, crucial elements encompass the part of the press, the elite political class, and propaganda in society that continue to suppress women’s involvement in political activity. The attachment of adverse policies, failures, and the lack of progress to female participation is a prominent aspect.

Gender bias in the political space is a prominent aspect. Lombardo, E. (2008, 22) states that even in developed countries, such as Spain and the European region, the role of policy development and discourse does not indicate substantial progress. Moreover, although developed states attempt to use policy to encourage female involvement in politics, there are prominent challenges, such as gender-based bias propagated by a male-dominated field. Additionally, the laws are not sensitive enough in addressing the deep-rooted inequality, particularly with a focus on the social aspect. At the same time, Esterchild, E. (2006, 526) evaluates the concept of gendered politics stating that in developed states, although women inclusion rates are significant, they do not always occupy high offices. On such occasions, inclusivity does not focus on quantity but the quality of participation. The implication is that the involvement should emphasize more senior positions, such as gubernatorial and presidential aspirants and successful candidates, as a vital indicator of maturity at the state level. Addressing the gender gap is a comprehensive aspect that requires inclusivity at all levels.

In the political context, the patterns of participation are consistent, even in the judicial service. Subsequently, unless on deliberate action, the number of women who occupy relevant seats in the Supreme Court is in the minority, compared to the majority men (Leonard, M., & Ross, J. 2020, 43). The research uses various cases of datasets to examine the influence of women in higher office in the judicial space and their impact on inclusive laws. In this regard, the implication is that the dominance of men in prominent policymaking positions is a vital element that results in gender bias and a gendered political field. Roth, S., and Saunders, C. (2018, 30) examine participation in street protests as an indicator of political participation. Using comparative approaches and designs, the research suggests that males are more probable to engage in street protests compared to women. Although it appears the female gender is more conservative and less active in such activities, existing social platforms and stereotypes are significant in encouraging nonparticipation. As highlighted, the issue is deep-rooted and requires social approaches to address.

Capitalism is a vital political movement that informed political change and the reorganization of labor markets. In this regard, Bayes, J. (2012, 16) states that alterations in political movements and the adoption of more liberal approaches to leadership resulted in increased participation of females in politics. In such arrangements, the eradication of systems that encouraged traditional methods of property ownership and engagement in business activities gave female leaders more space to pursue political activism. As a result, the women who participated in conventional areas reserved for men, such as the textile industry, facilitated the development of global feminization. The movement extended to the political arena, where females had more opportunities to engage in leadership. Zamfirache, I. (2010, 177) examines the aspect of women and breaking the glass ceiling. Consequently, the research evaluates the quality of representation from the lens of positions of power. The primary thesis is that despite the substantial growth of women engagement in political offices, the quality is not sufficient compared to men. In the corporate world, women CEOs continue to lag.

The issue of when females should make a difference in the political world persists. As indicated by Childs, S., and Krook, L. (2006, 19), examining how the substantive representation of the female gender affects engagement is critical. The implication is that various aspects, such as the media and the political class, have a particular way of presenting women as second-class citizens who play a helping role to their male counterparts. Moreover, the implication is that the current discrepancy does not operate independently, but depends on other elements, such as media representation, which affect the understanding of the significance of gender inclusivity in politics. At the same time, Pereira, F. (2019, 120) states that female representation in politics is a prominent factor that explains the existing gaps in participation. From such a perspective, relying on various surveys, the study suggests that deliberate underrepresentation by the media and the political class are vital aspects that help in explaining the existing discrepancies.

Various barriers limit the participation of women in politics. Shames, S. (2015, 1) cites institutional impediments and unresponsive system that leads to impenetrability. In this regard, a majority of women do not have confidence in their success in running for office, owing to the perception of a political arena dominated by men. Moreover, similar to Lovenduski, J. (1997, 44), social and cultural barriers are also prominent, including gender roles that limit particular tasks to men and women. Despite the increasing pressure from feminists, traditional perceptions of gender remain. Examples include the association of masculinity with leadership and femininity with softness. Moreover, society believes family work and duties are distinct, with women occupying caring responsibilities, while their male counterparts explore income-generating activities. In such arrangements, men have more opportunities to engage in social and political events, while females remain at home, hindered by domestic chores and duties related to social and cultural elements. A culture of politics that excludes women leads to reduced opportunities for civil engagements.















Bayes, J.H., 2012. Gender and Politics. Verlag Barbara Budrich.

Celis, K., Kantola, J., Waylen, G., and Weldon, S.L., 2013. Introduction: Gender and politics: A gendered world, a gendered discipline. In The Oxford handbook of gender and politics.

Childs, S., and Krook, M.L., 2006. Gender and politics: The state of the art. Politics26(1), pp.18-28.

Esterchild, E.M., 2006. Gender and politics. In Handbook of the sociology of gender (pp. 519-535). Springer, Boston, MA.

Kantola, J., and Lombardo, E., 2019. Populism and feminist politics: The cases of Finland and Spain. European journal of political research58(4), pp.1108-1128.

Kassa, S., 2015. Challenges and opportunities for women’s political participation in Ethiopia. Journal of Global Economics3(4), pp.1-7.

Leonard, M.E. and Ross, J.V., Gender Diversity, Women’s Leadership, and Consensus in State Supreme Courts. Journal of Women, Politics & Policy.

Lombardo, E., 2008. Gender inequality in politics: Policy frames in Spain and the European Union. International Feminist Journal of Politics10(1), pp.78-96.

Lovenduski, J., and Norris, P. eds., 1996. Women in politics (No. 4). Oxford University Press.

Mackay, F., 2004. Gender and political representation in the UK: the state of the ‘discipline.’ The British Journal of Politics and International Relations6(1), pp.99-120.

Milazzo, A., and Goldstein, M., 2017. Governance and Women’s Economic and Political Participation: Power Inequalities, Formal Constraints, and Norms. World Bank.

Pereira, F.B., 2019. Gendered Political Contexts: The Gender Gap in Political Knowledge. The Journal of Politics81(4), pp.1480-1493.

Roth, S., and Saunders, C., 2019. Gender differences in political participation: Comparing street demonstrators in Sweden and the United Kingdom. Sociology53(3), pp.571-589.

Shames, S., 2015. Barriers and solutions to increasing women’s political power. Discussion Draft13.

Zamfirache, I., 2010. Women and politics–the glass ceiling. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology1(01), pp.175-185.

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