|The organization of the paper was not ideal and in parts, confusing to the reader. The early Colonial history flowed into the African American experience, then transitioning into the Native American modern-day experience without initial historic background.
The thesis statement focused on African Americans and Native Americans while omitting the Project requirement to address the issue of women’s experience as a minority group in early America. The instructions required: “Focusing on American history from colonization to 1877, analyze the plight of minorities in early American society, focusing specifically on Native Americans, Africans, and women.”
The writer should consider mapping a research paper first — an outline. Using an outline helps the writer stay on-task with organization, logical flow, and ensure elements are not left out (in this instance, ‘women’).
The paper references many historical facts, notably with the African slave trade. In a scholarly paper, facts must be accompanied by source references (in-text citations corresponding with Reference page) — a critical component to any body of research for validity.
The paper lacked academic quality sources (see page titled Reference), including three primary sources. Here is a link on a primary v. secondary source refresher: https://umb.libguides.com/PrimarySources/secondary
The Project instructions required: – Incorporate scholarly resources to support your point of view, including at least three primary sources – Illustrate correct academic research documentation per APA standards
An APA formatted Reference page is not evident, or citations throughout the body of the research corresponding with the Reference page. Three apparent sources are listed with two URL addresses, and a notation “Understanding the American People, JFK University” with a small US map picture. No primary references. The scope of this research would have ideally resulted in approximately 20 references.
Attention to small APA details should be given with academic research submissions including: page numbers, one font choice in 12-point black, double-spacing only (no extra return line spaces), ensure photos/graphics/illustrations are properly formatted/credited or avoid using.
Attention to proofreading for grammar was needed. The writer shows knowledge and interest in the topic but did not invest into crafting the research according to the Project instructions, or according to APA format and style.
Here is the paper I did also:
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The purpose of this paper is for one to learn that European colonization of the America as we lean throughout history should be remembered as a tragedy for the unreasonable and immoral acts upon Native Americans and slave laborers. The European colonization of the Americas was a series of mayhems committed upon underdeveloped territory by settlers throughout the America where people had to fight for rights and freedom.
All this colonizing started when Columbus started the voyage in 1492 they travel afar from the East and ran across many nationalities on the journey to the North Atlantic where the climate was mostly cool, and filled with ice meeting and came across a fishing village at the tip of the North Atlantic and moving forward to the West looking for precious good that would satisfy the ones back in Europe. The moving of the cargo was grand during this period until they ran into unknown illness that nearly destroyed the population when they encounter the Black Death during the Mid-Fourteenth Century. Therefore, causing crews to switch routes and head toward Persia, India and Africa which these newly continents offered merchants great incentives for the discovery of this new land and was willing to share its wealth with others.
As Columbus journey across many lands and made friends that he developed treaties with this new found terrorioty many thought he was becoming to close and wanted him to teach them about the Savior. There were many tribes and cultures to learn and report back on to the Spain at the time, they first encountered the Indians which turned out to be first of its kind the “Tainos” tribe which lived along the Caribbean island they were caution of developing a relationship with these men. Once they learned one another ways and felt at ease with the traveler and his men, who was Columbus and receiving fair reports from Queen Isabella and the King they decided to come up with a treaty letting us others know that this new land and it people which were discovered belonged to Spain and the east land Portugal.
As time went by from Columbus discovering the Indians many exchange’s and wars brought out to control the people the ones they had befriend and took control of the land and their wealth and artwork. While the country was busy establishing the laws of the land, claiming territory rights to many new lands they founded, making these States to show who control and how the various people, laws, crops needed to endure the new founded land would help them to maintain stability all the way until the turn of the century.
After many wars that caused many deaths the country realize after the Civil War which ended in 1865 there would have be a new approach to this ending era of The Country moving toward 1877.
For ones not sure as to what colonization is it’s the process of a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. Colonization refers strictly to migration, for example, to settler colonies in America or Australia, trading posts, and plantations, while colonialism to the existing indigenous peoples of styled “new territories”. Colonization was linked to the spread of tens of millions from Western European states all over the world. In many settled colonies, Western European settlers eventually formed a large majority of the population after killing or driving away indigenous peoples. During this time period the native people had went through so many challenges trying to hold unto the land they knew by having wars, that left many native dead and losing their land, even though there were different tribes of native people who had experienced these tremendous fought with the Europeans these plight eventually led to the new lands and some even had to move to Mexico to escape the hostile environment after losing their land that they loved so much, now they had to learn how to deal with this new colonization and how to stand up for what few rights they did have in order to survive for future generations so perhaps the only broad generalization possible for the cross-cultural interactions of this time and place is that every group—whether native or not responded based on their past experiences, their cultural expectations, and their immediate circumstances During this colonization the native people had to once again deal with the pressure of the circumstances unbeknown to them such as dealing with the Spanish, Roman Catholic, and the European Christians ministry and England new ways of living by maintaining their farming skills by hunting, planting which many of the native people live to day this during time period learning this new way of living brought them the new colonization period teaching many new forms of labor and that often resulted in the creation of new kinds of products. An example of economic development has been the transition from hunting and gathering to a full reliance on agriculture; by learning this the new form of labor comprised the system of sowing and harvesting useful plants, while the new products comprised breaks such as corn (maize) and cotton. During the 19th century, much of the economic growth of Northern America arose from a shift in which economies, such as farming and mining, were replaced by those that transformed raw materials into consumer goods, as with food processing and manufacturing. In the 20th century a broadly comparable shift from a manufacturing economy to one focused on service industries (e.g., clerical work, entertainment, health care, and information technology) took place. This new living they learned during the colonization period woke up many Native people to work hard, seek education and some of them are now owning entertainment casinos that eventually help ones on the reservations.
Black African slaves or Black African Americans experience unfortunate situation of dealing with the new colonization period was a hurtful experience to many staring back in 1440, when the Europeans started traveling to the African continent trading post one in particular was the shipping port named “Elmina’, which is the translation of “the mine” in Portuguese. This fortress was also useful as a harbor for European ships. African people were kidnapped and then brought back to the fort to be traded for goods such as iron, guns, clothes, and other valuable items. Before the Europeans arrived to Africa they were using some of their own people as slaves, many do not know today that slavery existed long before their arrival. However, it was much different from what we know it as and think of as now. It didn’t have the racism and the typical idea that whites were the masters and that Africans were slaves. They were also allowed to marry and even have their own slaves during this time period. Colonization started with the Trans-Atlantic Trade in the 1400’s. This trading cycle was known as the triangular trade, involving Americans, Europeans, and Africans. It was beneficial for everyone except for Africa. The Europeans were deficient workers, and they knew that the African people were excellent workers. They came up with a way to start military campaigns in Western Africa, and literally captured these people. They worked efficiently in harsh climates and were used to it. The three stages of this slave trade were crucial at the time. The first involved taking European goods and tools over to Africa. These tools were used to get more slaves and the goods were traded for workers. The second stage was shipping the slaves to the Americas, where usually, very few survived. So, the Europeans didn’t care one bit about them, to the point that would allowed some of them to die. In the final stage, the products from slave labor were transferred back to Europe. This cycle was primarily involving Europe and Africa. The Europeans treated the African slaves very poorly for their own benefit. Later, around the sixteenth century, there was about 200,000 African people sent to Europe to be used as slaves. Now, many new ways for African people to be used were found, and it only progressed from there. The start of this slave-trading and colonizing process began with the sole idea that Europeans, whites, were better, and that they could do whatever they please, and rule Africa. In which this never happened the French and British took note of their action and began moving to the land and institute the Africans even though the land was a mine of gold by itself and took control of the product the African land had to offer.
As the European continued to move the slaves to various part of the land and knowing that the African Black slaves could work under extreme conditions the demand for them to assist with the labor for work on the various crops, especially sugar and tobacco. By the decades this need for labor rolled over to the Europeans transporting around 350,000 Africans from their homelands. By 1700, the tiny English sugar island of Barbados had a population of fifty thousand slaves, and the English had programmed the institution of chattel slavery into colonial law. By then the newly founded English Colonists never heard or dream of having another race of people working for them this was new to them. The ideal of having a slave at home and to use as servant labor. By the end of the seventeenth century, the English everywhere in America—and particularly in the Chesapeake Bay colonies—had come to rely on African slaves. While Africans had long practiced slavery among their own people, it had not been based on race. Africans enslaved other Africans as war captives, for crimes, and to settle debts; they used their slaves for domestic and small-scale agricultural work, not for growing cash crops on large plantations. Additionally, African slavery was often a temporary condition rather than a lifelong sentence, and, unlike New World slavery, it was typically not heritable passed from a slave mother to their children.
With the understanding that all men should be free and many battles were fought to end this type of treatment to people regardless of race, it took one President to end this terrible mindset of having people as slaves and working on various plantations. President Lincoln ended this for once. After the Civil War, the young black African Americans saw a chance that would help win the war and this would lead to a new of life for them.
This African Slave trade forever changed the course of European settlement in the Americas. Other transatlantic travelers, diseases, goods, plants, animals, and even ideas like the concept of private land ownership, further influenced life in America during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The exchange of furs for European goods including copper kettles, knives, and guns played a significant role in changing the material cultures of native peoples. During the seventeenth century, native peoples grew dependent on European trade items. At the same time, many native inhabitants died of European diseases, while survivors and the African slaves adopted new ways of living with their new fellow citizens. Now that the wars was over and people started moving across the land looking for ways to live peacefully among their selves and others, things were not easy for the Black African Americans they still had to endure name calling, working farms and even lost their homes to ones wanting not to see them succeed as a proud Black American. Many years have gone by many Black African American and Native had learned from the past and continue to this day to aspire for their dream of hope.
The movement or political dealings affected the Indians way of living in the urban ghettos natives neighborhoods, many who had been displaced by government programs that had the effect of forcing them from the reservation leaving many to fail at earning educations, work skills, which was needed in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle in American. This problem was so great one arose to organize a way to help the Native People. Many uprising Native Americans came up with the solution the organization was about Civil Rights, these individuals formed this group was called the AIM (American Indian Movement) which included Natives that understood the need of the people they were native individuals: Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt, Eddie Benton Banaji, and George Mitchell. Later, Russell Means were prominent spokesmen for the group. This organization was started in 1968 and founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This organization worked hard for their Native brothers and sisters, families and grandparents making sure that today they are giving respect and rights to economic independence, revitalization of traditional culture, protection of legal rights, and independence over tribal areas and the restoration of lands that they believed had been illegally seized.
Some of the negativity they experience as a people was one that their land was taken away from them by the greed of the Englishmen, used them as slaves, diseases fell upon them in which they had no knowledge of how to treat this causing a multitude of Native persons to die and earning their trust to sign treaties for the land in which during this time period they did not understand the language. With many of its leaders in prison, and torn by internal dissension, the national leadership disbanded in 1978, although local groups continued to function. From 1981 an AIM group occupied part of the Black Hills (South Dakota) to press its demands for return of the area to Indian jurisdiction. (Britannica Encyclopedia, 2019).
The political and social movement for the Black African Americans was new to them, they were overcoming the barrier of ones hating them for their skin color, not having a home or owning land or going to school. There were many problems that cause social movements the struggle commence right after the Reconstruction of American knowing that many of the soldiers were people of color that give their life for freedom. It all began during the 1950s and 1960s for blacks to gain equal rights under the law in the United States. The Civil War had officially abolished slavery, but it never end discrimination against blacks—this until today continues to endure the devastating effects of racism, especially in the South. During this time period the now free Black African Americans had to learn the ways of the new laws, regulations in order to survive, during the Reconstruction period the blacks took on leadership roles like never before making sure they were educated enough to hold public office and leaned the legislative process of changes for equality and the right to vote. Although the 14th Amendment that Congress passed gave them protection under the law as they too were inspirational in succeeding a new life under this new law. Many saw this was not enough just to protect they still wanted to be a part of the voting rights, another Amendment which was the 15th Amendment was created in 1870 granted the black the right to vote. Still others wanted them to remain enslaved because they began to realize that these people were now on a more playing level field with the White Americans. The Southern White were not happy about this law the created the “Jim Crow” law which keep the Blacks separate from the whites during this progress they wanted to limited the voting rights for the blacks. Even though the Northern states didn’t adopt this law they still had terrible experiences such as discriminating at their jobs or when they tried to purchase homes, get higher education. Moreover, southern segregation gained ground in 1896 when the U.S. Supreme Court declared in Plessy v. Ferguson that facilities for blacks and whites could be “separate but equal”; www.history.com/black history/civil rights, 1986.
After overcoming these struggles and adjusting the new laws there still was one more piece missing they really didn’t fell they had equal rights, many blacks were low wage farmers, factory workers, domestics or servants. By the time World War started in during the 1940’s many war related jobs opened up this made a way for the blacks they were given jobs, but not the high wage ones though they were denied joining the war. They were educated enough to join together to march upon the Washington government to demand equal employment rights. Now this concern many in Washington which lead President Franklin Roosevelt to create the Executive Order 8802 in June, 1941 that national defense jobs and other government jobs to given to all Americans regardless of their race, origin, color or creed. This Order did allow many blacks the opportunity to provide for their families many Black men and women served in good standing during this war despite still suffering the outcome of segregation and discrimination one group stood out during this war fight the “Tuskegee Airmen” who broke the racial barrier to serve as the country first black aviators and earned the U.S. Army Corps 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses. Yet many black veterans met with prejudice and scorn upon returning home. This was a stark contrast to why America had entered the war to begin with—to defend freedom and democracy in the world. After this the then President Harry Truman initiated a civil rights agenda in 1948 he issued an Executive Order 9981 to end discrimination in the military. These events helped set the stage for grass-roots initiatives to enact racial equality legislation and incite the civil rights movement. There was still many roads for the minorities to cross then came one young man that realize that we all could live together as one work hard, education our children, and aspire for dreams in this great America and maintain the same life style as the other race even though they wanted to deny people rights. Many were still unhappy with this order that gave the minorities some sort of freedom many events arose during this time period and some lost their lives but in 1963 of August the March on Washington was organized and attended by civil rights leaders such as A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin, and Martin Luther King Jr.; many attended this event it was peace and the main point for this was for people of color all races to peaceful march with the main purpose of forcing civil rights legislation and establishing job equality for everyone. The highlight of the march was King’s speech in which he continually stated, “I have a dream…”.
This event led to equal rights for all to enjoy even though we still must go through the barrier and remain peaceful and mindful of one another with love.
The comparison and difficulties and success of the minority group during this period some were still about the same. Both groups suffered hardships since the dawn of the Republic. Southern plantation owners held the black community in enslavement while greedy American settlers stole the Indians’ land. After the Reconstruction conditions radically changed for both: the slaves were freed at last, and the remaining free tribes were being herded onto reservations. For one the Indians
lost their land because of the ever-moving drive westward, blacks gained suffrage and equality under the law. But not all was good for the Black community they been robbed of its rights due to a alliance between white supremacists eager to keep freed blacks at the bottom of society and Democrats eager to gain a Southern power-base. Blacks began suffering the same hardships that their Indian cousins suffered. Yes the Indians had lost their land and moved toward the west and still to this day some live on reservations, as for the Black Americans if it wasn’t a few strong Republicans who believed and influence others in the federal and state governments, by creating Executive Orders and giving them civil rights they would eventually be far better off economically, politically, and socially than their Native American cousins. After World War I, the plight of the Native Americans was somewhat relieved because of pity for their worthless reservation life and attempts were made to give them both compensations for lost lands and representation in American politics. The African American community, conversely, was still being discriminated against by racist elements in both the North and South; blacks had to wait until the mid-1950’s before their condition was alleviated and they were brought to the level Native Americans occupied.
In order to compare the two groups in this modern day America one would have to know that they had many roads and hardships to deal here are some:
Native Indian Americans:
Modern day Native Americans are seeing a renaissance in culture, population, and most of all, sovereignty.
1. There are now 567 tribal nations have a formal nation-to-nation relationship with the United States government. Two hundred and twenty-nine of these nations are located in Alaska, though referred to as villages and corporations. Three hundred and thirty-eight of these nations are in the Lower 48 states
2. There were 334 federal- and state-recognized American Indian reservations located in 35 states. Despite the loss of land over the course of 500 years of colonialism, Indian Country, taken together, would still be the fourth largest state in the United States in terms of total acreage.
3. According to the 2010 United States census, 5.2 million people identified as American Indian or Alaska Native alone or in combination with other races, amounting to 1.7 percent of the total population. It’s estimated that the number may increase to 8.6 million or 2 percent of the total population by 2050.
4. With a great resurgent economy of many tribal nations certainly speak to recovery and renaissance. Studies published in 2012 found that the 38 tribal nations in Oklahoma supported 87,700 jobs—5 percent of all jobs in the state. In Washington State, 29 tribal nations created 27,300 jobs in tribal government. These jobs produced $1.3 billion in employee wages and benefits that generated $255 million in state and local taxes annually.
The casino Mohegan Sun Operated by the Mohegan Tribe (Image: JJBers/Public domain
Just as they did in 1491, Native Americans today live in a land that is ancient and modern, diverse and always changing.
1. Slavery Comes to North America , 1619, in order to satisfy the labor need of the growing North American colonies, white European settlers turned in the early 17th century from indentured servants (mostly poorer Europeans) to a cheaper, more plentiful labor source: enslaved Africans.
2. The Revolutionary War, the rural South—the region where slavery had taken the strongest hold in North America—faced an economic crisis. The soil used to grow tobacco, then the leading cash crop, was exhausted, while products such as rice and indigo failed to generate much profit.
3. In August 1831, Nat Turner struck fear into the hearts of white Southerners by leading the only effective slave rebellion in U.S. history. The Native Indians never had to perform an uprising against slavery for their freedom.
4. Abolitionism and the Underground Railroad , 1831 this movement was in North American was fueled both by slaves’ efforts to liberate themselves and by groups of white settlers, such as the Quakers, who opposed slavery on religious or moral ground and led by Harriet Tubman.
5. Civil War and Emancipation, 1861 by this time period the Black Americans were free five days after the bloody Union victory at Antietam in September, he issued a preliminary emancipation proclamation; on January 1, 1863, he made it official that enslaved people within any State, or designated part of a State in rebellion, “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” President Abraham Lincoln.
6. Brown v. Board Of Education, May 17, 1954 the United States Supreme Court delivered its verdict in Brown v. Board of Education, ruling unanimously that racial segregation in public schools violated the 14th Amendment’s mandate of equal protection.
7. CORE and Freedom Rides, May 1961 which many African Americans remember to this day this movement was for sought to end discrimination and improve race relations through direct action.
8. “I Have a Dream,” 1963 this speech was given by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr on August 28, 1963, where some 250,000 people—both black and white—participated in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the largest demonstration in the history of the nation’s capital and the most significant display of the civil rights movement’s growing strength. After marching from the Washington Monument, the demonstrators gathered near the Lincoln Memorial, where a number of civil rights leaders addressed the crowd.
To this day many family members recall this extraordinary day and was proud to be in attendance that day they still hear that momentous voice speaking the need for all people to be one and love one another regardless of their race, color, origin, and respect one as a mankind have struggle so much during these colonization times to the modern day. We must learn from each other and remove this hatred of color. Now times have changed Black Americans are working, seeking higher education and able to purchase homes and can move about and live as they choose compare to how the Native Americans have to live even though some of them have worked hard and better their selves and teaching the children