Write a research report, which reports the research you undertook, the results and the conclusions. You should also include a section in which you reflect on the success or otherwise of the approach you took to solving the problem, with some identification of how you might choose to do things differently the next time you carry out a research project.
Your research report should include:
● Some background information on the problem you have been researching
● A discussion of your research methods
● A discussion of your findings and results
● The conclusions you have reached
● An evaluation of the success of your chosen research method
● A reference list, including the publications you sourced for your literature review and any other publications you have used during your research
● An appendix containing any relevant research material such as completed questionnaires, interview transcripts etc
Related to education
The typical sections of a research report are listed below. Bear in mind the following:
1) Title/cover page
Include the title of your report, your student name and number and submission date
A full outline of the work carried out, results and conclusions. The abstract should be no longer than 250 words, however long the text of the research report.
3) Table of Contents
List the sections of the report, with page numbers.
4) Aims and Objectives
Start with a brief introduction to the topic area and/or the problem you are trying to solve. Description and justification of aims, including your research question and objectives.
5) Literature Review
An extensive survey of the literature, including any theory. Mention previous studies in the same area of investigation, their limitations and your evaluation of their findings and conclusions. State where your own project fits within the previous body of work.
6) Account of Investigation
A clear description and justification of your participants, procedures and materials. Make clear the methodology you used in your research, how it was conducted, what problems you faced, how you overcame them and any other details regarding the research work you carried out.
Details of what you found – your results or findings.
A discussion of your findings. May include some background information and the following:
What conclusions you have come to, including the implications and wider significance of your research.
A detailed list of all the sources you have drawn on in your research.
Full details of results, questionnaires, etc. Include all completed questionnaires, graphs, charts, and any other things which don’t fit into any of the sections of the report. You may find you need several sections. If so, number each appendix and start each new section on a separate page.
1.1 Aims and objective
The purpose of this project is to create a research report. Firstly it will demonstrate the methodology preferred by researcher for solving the tourism development problem in Sao Tome and Principe (STP) and how it can be developed by following the Cape Verde (CV) island example. This topic was chosen because it was relevant to the main course in coming years (Hospitality and Tourism Management). Furthermore, Sao Tome and Principe is country where author was born.
Secondly, it will contain an evaluation of the chosen method in addition to background information on the problem research, a discussion of finding, and the conclusion reached through the project.
The project will demonstrate large discrepancies between Cape Verde and Sao Tome and that certain strategies implemented in Cape Verde are unsuitable for Sao Tome and Principe because the island is a world heritage of the biosphere and still unknown for the world, these are one of the biggest obstacles for tourism development. In addition, the underprivileged democratic institutions, the size of the market and corrupt government will make it difficult for Sao Tome and Principe to gain international credibility and consequently attract investments in order to improve tourism.
The objective of this report is to identify improvement in Cape Verde tourism and exhibit how tourism in Sao Tome and Principe Islands can be improved. The island tourism hasn’t developed efficiently. Finally, in part four the main results are presented and discussed.
1.2 Background Information
According to Arslanian (2017), Africa continent has some of the most stunning beaches and best small Islands in the world. Tourism is considered a one of the most important source of employment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for several of small islands such as Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe (Azzopardi & Nash, 2015).
Furthermore, according to UNWTO (2005) tourism development is a process of economic and social transformation that requires a strong political leadership providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contribute to poverty alleviation.
Cape Verde is a group of ten islands located in north western coast of Africa, about 600 km west of Senegal (appendix 1). One of the most developed democratic countries in Africa; the archipelago stability is very attractive because it is a safe tourist destination. According to Mitchell (2008) tourism has increase exponentially in the last few years, making the country one of the fastest growing economies in Africa.
São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) are two small islands located right in the middle of Golf of Guinea just a few miles off the coast of Africa (appendix 2). Free of racial tensions, civil wars, natural disasters such as tornados, tsunamis; it is one of the last paradises of the earth with a nature that remains almost intact with amazing beaches, tropical landscapes, fruits and vegetables. This makes it an attractive tourist destination. The country’s economy is highly dependent on tourism, exports of cocoa, coffee and fishing. Despite the fact, it making an important contribution to the Gross domestic product (GDP), tourism on the island remains unknown.
This report will be based on secondary research in order to identify how tourism in Sao Tome and Principe should be improved; and create a quality research showing different perspectives from several secondary sources such as government reports and other official reports, books, journal articles and official government website about Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Data will be analysed and compared between these two islands. This is because it is impossible to carry on a primary research with the amount of time available.
In the initial stage of the study it was necessary to create a project plan explaining the problem and the approach taken to solve it and the possible hypothesis. The purpose of this plan was to demonstrate the reader (teacher), the student interpretation about the topic and the level of engagement.
2.2 The research tools used
In the second phase of study the researcher studied and related secondary sources such as:
2.3 Problems encountered and the approach to overcome them
By conducting this research the author encountered several problems to find information about STP. The lack of information, outdated data and the country unfamiliarity were some of the difficult. For instance the official government website of Sao Tome and Principe tourism does not have abundant information (appendix 3) consequently the search process become more difficult. To do so, the researcher changes the focus of subject and discovers other sources.
2.4 How successful the research has been
It can be argue that the study has been quite successful because the student is putting a significant effort and time to achieve higher recognition. In addition, if researcher had a second chance, she would take the research further. Using primary sources, travel to these islands (CV and STP) to conduct interviews with ministers of tourism and tourism companies in order to have fully understand about the subject in study.
The study identified that tourism development in Cape Verde Islands is relatively different from tourism in Sao Tome And Principe Islands. Sao Tome is four times smaller than Cape Verde and encounters two huge factors such as:
Moreover, others aspects that influence the development of tourism such as
All these aspects validate the hypothesis describe previously, that is extremely difficult to apply specific politics like a mass tourism, because with small populations of 190,344 the country has insignificant markets which does not attract great attentions from large corporations and high-net-worth tourists, which means people with higher financial resources( Ford, 2016; Henriques & Neto,2015).
The United Nations World Tourism Organisation (cited in Ford, 2016) argues that the” number of tourists visiting African countries will increase from 54 million in 2015 to 134 million by 2030”.
The Trading Economics argues that tourist arrivals in Cape Verde reached high averaged of 312880 in 2007 and a record low of 71246 in 2008. However the following graph shows that number of tourist arrivals in Sao Tome and Principe was reported at over 14000 in 2008, extremely low in comparison with Cape Verde arrivals.
These numbers demonstrate how well-known Cape Verde is by the international markets in comparison with Sao Tome.
Moreover biodiversity in the São Tomé and Príncipe islands is of great interest to ecologists and tourists, furthermore the tourism on the islands is based on nature tourism, ecotourism, and scientific tourism, watching tourism and sustainable tourism, in order to protecting and preserving the environment, because an intensive tourism should damage the atmosphere, consequently generate habitat loss, pollution and extinction of unique species.
However, the island should apply the pro-poor tourism because this will allow the country recognises in which tourism companies are suitable for tourists that can generate benefits for the host society. According to World Travel & Tourism Council (2015) tourism will generate 6,000 employments; it includes jobs in hotels, travel agents, restaurant, in addition offering opportunities to local people creates business. As a result Gross domestic product (GDP) will increase thus generate improvement on economic prospects and reduce poverty significantly that is currently at 66 per cent.
The findings demonstrate that tourism development in São Tomé and Príncipe should take in consideration those aspects describe previously.
The purpose of this research was to analyse the tourism development problem in Sao Tome and Principe (STP) and identify what can be developed by following the Cape Verde. Both Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe are engage to developing the tourist sector, both seeking for foreign visitors.
The tourism sector in STP has gradually increased last years; however limited by unknown to international markets, economic growth poverty and others factors. To change this scenario the government should adopt a different attitude and consider the fact that it is essentials for the country to gained credibility to attract foreign investment. To put it another way, this is the moment for work on effective polices to support for the tourism sector and prove to the world that despise the problems significant development can be made. To do so, is essential to create a new government’s policies, encouraging local business , therefore tourism become more effective in reducing poverty and stimulating economic growth.
Arslanian, S., 2017. Culture Trip. [Online]
Available at: https://theculturetrip.com/africa/articles/12-astonishingly-beautiful-paradise-islands-in-africa/
[Accessed 16 May 2017].
Azzopardi, E. & Nash, R., 2015. A framework for island destination. Taylor & Francis, 3(19), pp. 253-281.
BusinessDictionary, 2017. WebFinance Inc. [Online]
Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/bottleneck.html
[Accessed 17 May 2017].
Ford, N., 2016. Microstate São Tomé looks to tourism.. African Business., 2(429), pp. 80-81.
Henriques, M. H. & Neto, K., 2015 . OPEN ACCESS. [Online]
Available at: file:///C:/Users/1610996/Downloads/sustainability-07-00648.pdf
[Accessed 18 May 2017].
IMF, I. M. F., 2016. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF SÃO, Washington: International Monetary Fund Publication Services.
Mitchell, J., 2008. Overseas Development Institute. [Online]
Available at: https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/5850.pdf
[Accessed 17 March 2017].
ORWB & Koussoube, I., 2012. African Development Bank Group. [Online]
Available at: https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Cape%20Verde%20-%20A%20Success%20Story.pdf
[Accessed 17 March 2017].
Sharpley, R., 2009. Tourism and development challenges in the least developed countries:the case of The Gambia. Taylor & Francis, 12(4), p. 337–358.
TradingEconomics, 2017. TRADING ECONOMICS. [Online]
Available at: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/cape-verde/tourist-arrivals
[Accessed 17 May 2017].
UNWTO, 2005. The World Tourism Organization. [Online]
Available at: http://sdt.unwto.org/content/about-us-5
[Accessed 17 May 2017].
WordBank, 2016. The World Bank. [Online]
Available at: http://message.worldbank.org/drm/documents_error.htm
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
WTTC, 2015. Economic Impact 2015 Cape Verde, London: The World Travel & Tourism Council.
WTTC, 2015. The Economic Impact of Travel & Tourism 2015 Sao Tome and Principe, London,: The World Travel & Tourism Council.
WTTC, 2017. TRAVEL & TOURISM ECONOMIC IMPACT 2017 Cape Verde, London: The World Travel & Tourism Council.
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