All of those are psychology discussion questions. just need 200 words for one question. Thank you.
That is one of the reasons why it is considered by the Ontario government to be part of a “Controlled Act”.
A Controlled Act is a clinical activity that has been recognized by the government in law as having the potential to harm someone if it is an action in the provision of health care if it is done improperly. The first act, in a list of 13 Controlled Acts in the legislation (the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991), is:
“Communicating to the individual or his or her personal representative a diagnosis identifying a disease or disorder as the cause of symptoms of the individual in circumstances in which it is reasonably foreseeable that the individual or his or her personal representative will rely on the diagnosis.”
Therefore, it is restricted to certain health care professions in Ontario. When the legislation was first enacted, only five professions were allowed to diagnose: medicine, optometry, dentistry, chiropracty, and psychology. While there have been a couple of additions since that time, it is still very limited.
Medicine has no restrictions on what they can diagnose while the others all are limited in what they can diagnose. The profession of Psychology, under the Psychology Act (1991), is allowed:
“In the course of engaging in the practice of psychology, a member (of the College of Psychologists of Ontario) is authorized, subject to the terms, conditions and limitations imposed on his or her certificate of registration, to communicate a diagnosis identifying, as the cause of a person’s symptoms, a neuropsychological disorder or a psychologically based psychotic, neurotic or personality disorder.”
Do you consider this to be an appropriate restriction on diagnosis? What I mean is, shouldn’t other professions be able to diagnose clinical disorders in their area of expertise (e.g., language delays by a speech-language pathologist, physical disabilities by an occupational therapist)?
As many of you might be aware, the DSM-IV was been around for many years (1994). There have been a number of concerns about it. The textbook describes some of them on page 101.
In more recent years, they worked on the 5th edition of this basic diagnostic manual. It was finally released in 2013. They now describe in on pages 101-106of the text.
To learn more about the changes, you can find more information at American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 Fact Sheets
Here is a link to a (over one hour) video on the new DSM-5 that was put out by the American Psychological Association
And here is a video with a nice overview of the history of the DSM that allows you to see how some of the problems with it developed over the years.
However, there has been a backlash in some quarters about the proposed changes (pages 103-105 of the text). One of the strongest voices in reaction to some of the proposed changes is from Allen Frances. Dr. Frances chaired the DSM-IV and came out of retirement because he has seen many of the mistakes his group made are now being made even more often by the DSM-5 Working Group in its suggestions.
Here is a link to his 2013 lecture in Toronto on “The Overdiagnosis of Mental Illness”
Similar concerns were raised in other areas, such as the Toronto Star.
What are your reactions to his concerns? Do you think he has a valid point?
In the past, many disorders were thought to be mental illnesses. However, as we learned the cause of the disorders (e.g., epilepsy) as being a neurological disorder, they were then described as a neurological disorder. We see this barrier between neurology and psychiatry becoming confusing for some disorders we will discuss later on, such as dementia.
Neuroscientists (most of whom actually have their doctoral degrees in Psychology – like Western’s own Dr. Adrian Owen) are investigating the links between the brain and behaviour.
Here is a short video from the New York Times of some recent research by psychologists (with some nice graphics)
We are still not able to diagnose mental illness’s using such technologies. However, if we were able to make such a diagnosis, would that make it a neurological disorder and not a mental health issue? Where is the border between the two, or is there one?
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