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Exploration Activity 1: Epigenetics Interactive Website

 

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  • Number of pages: 3 pages/double spaced (825 words)
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https://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/twins/

From this exploration , answer the following questions:

  1. Explain how the environment (both prenatal and postnatal) plays a role in regulating the genetic information that the child inherits. Show examples from this website to illustrate this regulation. In your explanation, where possible, apply the appropriate terms that this website use.
  2. What are the potential advantages of these types of genetic-environment interactions for the child? Again, show examples from this website to support your answer.

Exploration Activity 2: What We Learn Before We’re Born

you are asked to view the Ted Talk by Annie Murphy Paul: What We Learn Before We’re Born. Answer the following questions based on your learning from this talk

 

  1. Show how Annie Murphy Paul’s discussion of the “biological postcards from the world outside” relates to the concepts of epigenetic modificationsand predictive-adaptive responses .
  2. Describe how these predictive-adaptive responses might notbe adaptive. What might be the drawbacks of the predictions that the fetus is making from the events and conditions in the outside world based on these “postcards?” Use an example from the talk .
  3. Briefly describe two examples of perceptual (sensory) or cognitive behaviours that are learned by fetuses before they are born, and describe how investigators measured this fetal learning.

 

Short-Answer Questions

Write a response in your own words to each of the following questions:

  1. Researchers report finding a significant correlation between measures of family stress and levels of aggression found in children. The correlation is positive, meaning that in families under stress, more stress is associated with greater aggression in the children. Note that the correlation also can be stated in the opposite way: aggressiveness in children is associated with more stress in the family. Although we know that correlations cannot be interpreted as cause and effect, it would be common for people to conclude from this finding that family stress causes children to be aggressive. What other causal explanations are possible for this correlation? Explain your answer.
  2. If you had to put together a theory of child development, you could include elements of several major theories. Choose one element from three different theories that you would include, and explain why you would include them. How does your theory account for both genetic and environmental influences on development?
  3. Why is the saying “timing is everything” particularly true with regard to prenatal development and exposure to teratogens? Discuss the effects of timing of exposure to teratogens on fetal development. Include a discussion of why different children exposed to the same teratogen during the same fetal period may experience different outcomes. Include examples of research findings on the effects of various teratogens at different periods in fetal development .
  4. Suppose you were interested in conducting research looking at the effects of prenatal exposure to various drugson later childhood development:
    1. Ethical issueswill have an impact on whether a correlational or experimental research method can be used. Which of these two designs can’t be ethically usedWhy? How will this affect the interpretations and conclusions you can/can’t make from this research data?
    2. In addition to these ethical issues, what other factors make it challenging to conduct research on the effects of drugs on prenatal development? Discuss at least three different factors, and discuss how they are addressed by researchers and how they impact the conclusions that researchers can draw from their results.

 

 

 

 

 

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