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Instructions are within the template which I am attaching. I have written it but it was not written in a scholarly manner according to my chair.

Dissertation Prospectus

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How Administrators influence on employees can reduce medication errors within a clinical setting

Submitted by

Marion T. Stevens

15 April 2020

Dr. Susan Taffer

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………iv

 

List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………v

 

Chapter 1:  Introduction to the Study………………………………………………….1

 

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….1

 

Background of the Study………………………………………………………………..5

 

Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………5

 

Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………….7

 

Research Question(s) and Hypothesis………………………………………………..8

 

Advancing Scientific Knowledge………………………………………………………11

 

Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………12

 

Rationale for Methodology…………………………………………………………….13

 

Nature of the Research Design for the Study………………………………………..15

 

Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………..16

 

Assumptions, Limitation, Definitions………………………………………………….18

 

Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study……………………….20

 

Chapter 2:  Literature Review…………………………………………………………22

 

Introduction to the Chapter and Background to the Problem………………………22

 

Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework…………………………..22

 

Review of the Literature……………………………………………………………….24

 

Summary………………………………………………………………………………..25

 

Chapter 3:  Methodology………………………………………………………………35

 

Introduction Statement of the Problem……………………………………………….35

 

Table of contents continued

 

Statement of the Problem: ……………………………………………………………36

 

Research Question(s) or Hypothesis ………………………………………………..36

 

Research Methodology ……………………………………………………………….38

 

Design Population and Sample ………………………………………………………39

Population and Sample Selection ……………………………………………………41

Instrumentation or Sources of Data ………………………………………………….43

Validity ………………………………………………………………………………….45

Reliability ……………………………………………………………………………….47

Data Collection and Management ……………………………………………………48

Data Analysis Procedures …………………………………………………………….49

Ethical Consideration ………………………………………………………………….52

Limitations and Delimitations …………………………………………………………53

Summary ……………………………………………………………………………….54

References ……………………………………………………………………………..56

Appendix A, the Parts of a Dissertation ……….…………………………………….59

Appendix B, IRB Approval Letter …………………………………………………….62

Appendix, Informed Consent …….……………………………………………………63

Appendix D, Copy of Instruments and Permission Letter to Use in Instruments .64

 

 

 

 

 

Prospectus Instructions:

1.    Read the entire Prospectus Template to understand the requirements for writing your prospectus. Each section contains a narrative overview of what should be included in the section and a table with required criteria for each section. WRITE TO THE CRITERIA, as they will be used to assess the prospectus for overall quality and feasibility of your proposed research study.

2.    As you draft each section, delete the narrative instructions and insert your work related to that section. Use the criterion table for each section to ensure that you address the requirements for that particular section. Do not delete/remove the criterion table as this is used by you and your committee to evaluate your prospectus.

3.    Prior to submitting your prospectus for review by your chair or methodologist, use the criteria table for each section to complete a realistic self-evaluation, inserting what you believe is your score for each listed criterion into the Learner Self-Evaluation column.  This is an exercise in self-evaluation and critical reflection, and to ensure that you completed all sections, addressing all required criteria for that section.

4.    The scoring for the criteria ranges from a 0-3 as defined below. Complete a realistic and thoughtful evaluation of your work. Your chair and methodologist will also use the criterion tables to evaluate your work.

5.    Your Prospectus should be no longer than 6-10pages when the tables are deleted.

 

Score Assessment
0 Item Not Present
1 Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required: Not all components are present. Large gaps are present in the components that leave the reader with significant questions. All items scored at 1 must be addressed by learner per reviewer comments.
2 Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations.Some Revisions May Be Required Now or in the Future. Component is present and adequate. Small gaps are present that leave the reader with questions. Any item scored at 2 must be addressed by the learner per the reviewer comments.
3 Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions Required.Component is addressed clearly and comprehensively. No gaps are present that leave the reader with questions. No changes required.

 

 

Dissertation Prospectus

Introduction

The ability to understand how medication errors can be reduced within a clinical setting is an area that remains a challenge in the medical field.  The topic directly focuses on how Administrators influence on employees can reduce medication errors within a clinical setting (Davis et. al., 2019). The influence will be evaluated from a macro level perspective that includes opportunity to influence corporate culture, opportunity to influence employee attitudes, and the opportunity to leverage technology within a clinical setting.  The direct evaluation of how evidence-based practices could be implemented by administrators within a clinical setting, could directly be leveraged to improve patient outcomes and reduce the probability of subjective human error occurring.

These steps are of the utmost importance as they are a direct representation of how clinical practice could be integrated as an important source of change through education and oversight within a clinical setting (Naton, 2019). These objective standards will provide a direct opportunity to promote opportunity for operational capacity and the ability to perform objective evaluation within a clinical setting. The research will propose effective solutions that could be implemented from an administrative perspective as a source of change. This represents how the change process could be developed on an institutional level, through the lens of applying evidence-based practice. The theory that will be utilized to implement this program will be transformational leadership theory as it focuses on empowerment and the application of theory (Yang et. al., 2016). This theory was selected because it focused on transforming practice through skill, and is adaptive enough to integrate contingency and situational leadership based theories.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Introduction

This section briefly overviews the research focus or problem, why this study is worth conducting, and how this study will be completed.

The recommended length for this section is two to three paragraphs.

1.    Dissertation topic is introduced along with why the study is needed. 3    
2.    Provides a summary of results from the prior empirical research on the topic. 3    
3.    Using results, societal needs, recommendations for further study, or needs identified in three to five research studies (primarily from the last three years), the learner identifies the stated need, called a gap. 3    
4.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format. 3    
NOTE: This Introduction section elaborates on the Topic from the 10 Strategic Points. This Introduction section provides the foundation for the Introduction section in Chapter 1 of the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments:

 

 

Background of the Problem

The problem has historically been driven by a lack of training to prevention medication errors within a clinical setting. Many nurses do not understand the interventions that could be implemented on an administrative level to reduce medication errors. Medication error has historically been representative of a problem that is often driven by human mistake (Davis et. al.2019). This creates a dangerous environment where standardization becomes problematic as it is difficult to collect objective data pertaining to the underlying causes pertaining to medication errors when human interaction occurs. This is a problem that is directly driven by numerous external conditions such as a lack of funding, overrun healthcare infrastructure, human fatigue, a lack of nurses and hospital staff, and a lack of training.

Medication error is directly representative of numerous conditions that represent compounding issues that can limit medication intervention effectiveness (Gorgich et. al., 2019). This is a problem that has gained increased attention within the medical sector, as technology has offered solutions that could be implemented on enterprise-level to objectively deal with potential human error. These solutions are grounded within evidence-based practices and provide an opportunity for administrators to play significant role.

This provides a strategic baseline that could be implemented to ensure effective intervention reasoning takes place. This also suggests that technology could be better implemented within the clinical setting, and administrators will play a vital role within this strategic implementation that could be rolled out across a clinical based setting.

The gap.

Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the importance of this issue, and the influence that it has had from a macro level perspective. Chan et. al. (2019) found that many recent nursing graduates felt that they had low levels of self-efficacy and were not informed of evidence-based practices that could assist within a clinical setting (2019).This study directly supports the theoretical gap within the research as a lack of evidence-based practices that focus on how education can be leveraged within a clinical setting to reduce medication errors is simply not present in many nursing schools. Specifically, the integration of technology plays a significant role as a mechanism that can be leveraged for change and macro level sustainability.  This gap is driven by a lack of educational awareness, and the inability to create change and macro level sustainability.

Naton (2019) further solidified that nurses were often not incentivized to report medication errors, nor did they fully understand the specific protocol that is mandated to promote effective medication error understanding and development.  Once again, a lack of reporting procedures was not understood by researchers, and this has had a direct impact on nurses not understanding proper reporting protocol which has directly contributed to the GAP.

Gorgich, (2019) found that nurses in a clinical setting felt that there were little reinforced strategies that are present, which have had a direct impact on how clinical application and understanding can thus take place.  This research solidified the gap as it focused on a lack of reporting protocol for nurses within a clinical setting.

How to establish the gap.

The literature identifies the common need to leverage technology, and how the need for technology could be applied as an effective medium to create change and improve operational strategy. The current lack of understanding becomes a direct representation of how technological innovation could be applied to address this gap. Medication errors have often been focused on strictly through the lens of clinical application, rather than institutional policy. The lack of policy has created a gap where administrative protocol is not effectively leveraged to strategically address the needs associated with medication errors (Davis, 2019). Administrators play a significant role in creating procedure and protocol that establishes an organizational culture within a clinical setting. There is a clear gap that is present within the situation, and the research evaluation will identify how administrators could effectively close the research gap to address the problem with the medical field. Closing the gap represents a fundamental step that cannot be ignored.

Evolution of problem.

The approach will be based upon the application of medication error training in nursing school which will increase awareness and improve patient outcome.  It is known that transformational leadership can play a significant role in promoting key concepts in education, however it is not known how this is being applied within nursing education.  Specifically applying preventative education can be applied both in the clinical and pre-graduate educational setting. Preventative education could be applied both in a domestic capacity and could also be applied to directly address the gap. Addressing the gap drives the problem statement within the research which states, it is not known how administrators influence on employees reduce medication errors within a clinical setting? This problem statement is directly representative of the underlying issues that facilities often face, and how these issues directly contribute to mitigating policy that could directly prove institutional outcome.

There is little research however that focuses on the role that administrators could play to promote evidence-based practices across an entire clinical unit. The lack of understanding the administrator’s role provides a glaring need within the research and acted as the basis of the problem statement which thus justified the underlying need within the research. Understanding the role of the researcher must be addressed through a level of objectivity and focus on institutional process.  The focus will create a level of awareness that could be integrated from an operational perspective.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Background of the Problem

This section uses the literature to provide the reader with a definition and statement of the research gap and problem the study will address. This section further presents a brief historical perspective of when the problem started and how it has evolved over time.

 

The recommended length for this section is two-three paragraphs.

1.    Includes a brief discussion demonstrating how literature has established the gap and a clear statement informing the reader of the gap. 3    
2.    Discusses how the “need” or “defined gap” has evolved historically into the current problem or opportunity to be addressed by the proposed study (citing seminal and/or current research). 3    
3.    ALIGNMENT: The problem statement for the dissertation will be developed from and justified by the “need” or “defined gap” that is described in this section and supported by the empirical research literature published within the past 3-5 years. 3    
4.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format. 2    
NOTE: This Background of the Problem section uses information fromtheLiterature Review in the 10 Strategic Points. This Background of the Problem section becomes the Background of the Study in Note, this section develops the foundation for Chapter 1 in the Proposal. It is then expanded to develop the comprehensive Background to the Problem section and Identification of the GAP sections in Chapter 2 (Literature Review) in the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments:

 

 

Theoretical Foundations/Conceptual Framework and Review of the Literature/Themes

The evaluation of the literature review provided an objective framework which could be applied to reduce medication errors. A lack of protocol is driven by common subjective human bias, which can increase the probability of medication error (Davis, 2019). The literature identifies the common need to leverage technology, and how this need could be applied as an effective medium to create change and improve operational strategy (Rogers, 2019). The need to leverage technology becomes a direct representation of how technological innovation could be applied to address the gap. Medication errors have often been focused on strictly through the lens of clinical application, rather than institutional policy (Jackson, 2017). The narrow theoretical focus has created a gap where administrative protocol is not effectively leveraged to strategically address the needs associated with medication errors. Administrators play a significant role in creating procedure and protocol that establishes an organizational culture within a clinical setting (2019). There is a clear gap that is present within the situation, and this research evaluation will identify how administrators could effectively close this gap to address this problem with the medical field. Closing this gap represents a fundamental step that cannot be ignored.

As was stated within the GAP a lack of education has played a significant role in terms of influencing these processes and effective standards.  Training on reporting and intervention is a recognition of the underlying causes which have had a direct impact associated with medication errors (Rogers, 2019).  Specifically, this is an issue that occurs early on through various aspects, which has had a negative effect on how learning and sustainable action can take place. A lack of early education creates an environment where nurses are not prepared to recognize the necessary preventative steps that must be integrated as a source of intervention.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework

This section identifies the theory(s) or model(s) that provide the foundation for the research. This section should present the theory(s) or models(s) and explain how the problem under investigation relates to the theory or model. The theory(s) or models(s) guide the research questions and justify what is being measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related (quantitative) or the phenomena being investigated (qualitative).

 

Review of the Literature/Themes

This section provides a broad, balanced overview of the existing literature related to the proposed
research topic. It describes the literature in related topic areas and its relevance to the proposed research topic findings, providing a short 3-4 sentence description of each theme and identifies its relevance to the research problem supporting it with at least two citations from the empirical literature from the
past 3-5 years.

 

The recommended length for this section is 1 paragraphfor Theoretical Foundations and a bulleted list for Literature Themes section.

1.    Theoretical Foundationssection identifies the theory(s), model(s) relevant to the variables (quantitative study) or phenomenon (qualitative study). This section should explain how the study topic or problem coming out of the “need” or “defined gap” in the Background to the Problem section relates to the theory(s) or model(s) presented in this section. (One paragraph) 3    
2.    Review of the Literature Themessection: This section is a bulleted list of the major themes or topics related to the research topic. Each theme or topic should have a one-two sentence summary. 2    
3.    ALIGNMENT: The Theoretical Foundations models and theories need to be related to and support the problem statement or study topic. The sections in the Review of the Literature are topical areas needed to understand the various aspects of the phenomenon (qualitative) or variables/groups (quantitative) being studied; to select the design needed to address the Problem Statement; to select surveys or instruments to collect information on variables/groups; to define the population and sample for the study; to describe components or factors that comprise the phenomenon; to describe key topics related to the study topic, etc. 2    
4.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format. 2    
NOTE: The two parts of this section use information about theLiterature Review and Theoretical Foundations/Conceptual Framework from the 10 Strategic Points.

This Theoretical Foundations section is expanded upon to become the Theoretical Foundations section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review). The Theoretical Foundationsand the Literature Reviewsections are also used to help create the Advancing Scientific Knowledge/Review of the Literature section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review).

Reviewer Comments:

 

 

Problem Statement

It is not known to what extent administrative training can be used within a clinical setting, to understand how to reduce the probability of medication errors. The issue of medication errors is a phenomenon that has the ability to be subjective and has represented a major problem that has been neglected within healthcare administration efforts. The lack of administrative training is a critical area that cannot be overlooked and is one that is directly representative of how medication errors have become problematic on an institutional level. The research focused on how from an administrative level training could be rendered to create a culture of awareness across an enterprise level.

The strategic application of training issue serves a real and defined need as medication errors are preventable and are often driven by subjective human error (Jackson, 2017).  This is an issue that effects society as it placed unnecessary strain on the healthcare system, and also contributes to preventable issues which should be addressed early on.

Unit of Analysis

Because this is a mixed methods design a diversified approach must be evaluated to understand common themes and specific units of measure. The phenomenon that will be studied will be specific evidence-based practices that could be applied to reduce medication error. The units of measurement within the survey instrument given at the end of the interviews focused on perception of medication error, seriousness given to medication error, practices applied in personal clinical experience, and institutional support practices as well. This multi-faceted approach provides a necessary baseline that can attempt to establish causality.  The conceptual variable will be reduced medication errors within a clinical setting.

Criteria

 

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Problem Statement

This section includes the problem statement, the population affected, and how the study will contribute to solving the problem.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

1.    States the specific problem proposed for research with a clear declarative statement.         3    
2.    Describes the population of interest affected by the problem. The general population refers to all individuals that could be affected by the study problem.          3    
3.    Describes the unit of analysis.

For qualitative studies this describes how the phenomenon will be studied. This can be individuals, group, or organization under study.

For quantitative studies, the unit of analysis needs to be defined in terms of the variable structure (conceptual, operational, and measurement).

        2    
4.    Discusses the importance, scope, or opportunity for the problem and the importance of addressing the problem.         2    
5.    The problem statement is developed based on the need or gap defined in the Background to the Study section.         3    
6.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.         3    
NOTE: This section elaborates on theProblem Statement from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Problem Statement section in Chapter 1and other Chapters where appropriatein the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments:

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate from the contextual perspective the various evidence-based practices that could be implemented from administrative perspective, to reduce the probability of medication error. The study will look to identify ways in which these practices could be levied from an administrative perspective within a healthcare setting, to create an organizational culture of awareness and effective prevention. This would act a significant component that could strategically be leveraged to reduce the probability of medication error taking place. There is a clear gap which has impacted the manifestation of medication errors within a clinical setting, creating numerous issues in terms of prevention (Rogers et. al, 2019).

Criteria              

 

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This section reflects what the study is about, connecting the problem statement, methodology & research design, target population, variables/phenomena, and geographic location.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

1.    Begins with one sentence that identifies the research methodology and design, target population, variables (quantitative) or phenomena (qualitative) to be studied and geographic location.             3    
2.    Quantitative Studies: Defines the variables and relationship of variables.

3.    Qualitative Studies: Describes the nature of the phenomena to be explored.

           2    
4.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.           2    
NOTE: This section elaborates on information inthe Purpose Statement from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Purpose of the Study section in Chapter 1and other Chapters where appropriate in the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments:

Research Questions and/or Hypotheses

Research Question 1: How can evidence based peer reviewed research practices be used by administrators within a clinical setting to reduce medication errors?

Research question 2: How will these practices be applied to create an organizational culture of awareness that could be implemented to reduce the manifestation of medication errors?

Hypothesis 1: The application of evidence-based practices, can act as an effective medium that could be applied to reduce the presence of medication errors.

Null: There is no correlation between the manifestation of medication errors and preventative education?

 

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses

·         The recommendation is a minimum of two research questions along with related hypotheses and variables is required for a quantitative study.

·         Also recommended is a minimum of two research questions along with the phenomenon description is required for a qualitative study.

·         Put the Research Questions in the appropriate Table in Appendix B based on whether the study is qualitative or quantitative.

 

The recommended length for this section is a list of research questions and associated hypotheses (quantitative)

1.    Qualitative Studies: States the research question(s) the study will answer and describes the phenomenon to be studied.

2.    Quantitative Studies: States the research questions the study will answer, identifies and describes the variables, and states the hypotheses (predictive statements) using the format appropriate for the specific design and statistical analysis.

            2    
3.    Alignment: The research questions are based on both the Problem Statement and Theoretical Foundation model(s) or theory(s). There should be no research questions that are not clearly aligned to the Problem Statement.             3    
4.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.            3    
NOTE: This section elaborates on the information about Research Questions) &Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses section in Chapter 1 in the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments:

 

Advancing Scientific Knowledge and Significance of the Study

The understanding of administrative role in applying consistent standards to prevent medication error is significant as the convergence between administration and healthcare is ever-growing within a modern perspective (Matt, 2018). The research looks to bridge the gap between administrative best practices that could be implemented daily, and how this could be applied to create a safer work environment that reduces the probability of medication errors. There is a vast amount of literature that discusses evidence-based practices that could be applied to reduce the manifestation of medication errors, however little literature exists that discusses the role that administrators can play in promoting an effective organizational culture of accountability. The combination of these steps acts as a necessary component that could be applied to reduce medication error and build upon the body of research.

The Advancing Scientific Knowledge and Significance of the Study section reiterates the “gap” or “need” in the literature that was used to define the problem statement and develop the research questions. Further, it describes how the study will address the “gap” or “identified need.” The section describes how the research fits with or will build on/add to the results of other studies on the topic and how those results will contribute to or advance the current literature or body of research. Although this advancement may be a small step forward in a line of current research, it must add to the current body of knowledge and align to the learner’s program of study. The section also discusses the implications of the potential results based on the research questions and problem statement, hypotheses, or the investigated phenomena. Further, it describes the potential practical applications from the research for the community of interest. The section identifies the theory (ies) or model(s) that provide the theoretical foundations or conceptual frameworks for the study. Finally, it connects the study directly to the theory and describes how the study will add or extend the theory or model.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

ADVANCING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE and SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This section reiterates the gap or need in the literature and states how the study will address the gap or need and how the research will contribute to the literature, practical implications to the community of interest, and alignment with the program of study.

The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs, providing a brief synopsis of each criteria listed below which will be expanded in the proposal.

1.    Clearly identifies the “gap” or “need” in the literature that was used to define the problem statement and develop the research questions. (citations required)             3    
2.    Describes how the study will address the “gap” or “identified need” defined in the literature and contribute to /advance the body of literature.  (citations required)             3    
3.    Describes the potential practical applications from the research. (citations required)             3    
4.    Identifies and connects the theory(ies) or model(s) that provide the theoretical foundations or conceptual frameworks for the study. (citations required)             3    
5.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.              3    
NOTE:This section builds oninformation about the Literature review and Theoretical Foundations sectionsin the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Theoretical Foundations section in Chapter 2  
Reviewer Comments:  

Rationale for Methodology

The Rationale for Methodology is directly based upon evaluating how medication error can realistically be addressed and improved upon from a clinical perspective. A qualitative approach would be applied, as it focuses on interviewing and understanding the experiences of nurses in daily practice. The methodology provides a customized understanding of nursing experiences which goes beyond a qualitative perspective. The methodology suggests that there is a needed level of adaptability within the project scope, which focuses on the strategic identification of change and how it could be dealt with from a macro level perspective through increased training. Effective methodology can promote alignment to increase validity and focus on replicating a process (Muskat, 2019).

The qualitative methodological approach should be applied on a macro level to understand the needs and experiences of the participants.  The phenomenon that is to be studied is level of educational awareness that nurses have pertaining to medication error intervention, and how this intervention understanding correlates with a reduction in medication errors. Understanding evidence-based practices directly correlates with a reduction of medication errors (Naton, 2019). These attributes align with the proposed study as they provide both understanding of common themes in literature review and real-world experiences of the nurses on the ground level.

 

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Rationale for Methodology

The Rationale for Methodology section clearly justifies the methodology the researcher plans to use for conducting the study. It argues how the methodological choice (quantitative or qualitative) is the best approach to answer the research questions and address the problem statement. Finally, it contains citations from textbooks and articles on research methodology and/or articles on related studies to provide evidence to support the argument for the selected methodology.

 

The recommended length for this section isone paragraph.

 

1.    Identifies the specific research methodology for the study.      
2.    Justifies the methodology to be used for the study by discussing why it is an appropriate approach for answering the research question(s) and addressing the problem statement.

3.    Quantitative Studies: Justify in terms of problem statement and the variables for which data will be collected.

4.    Qualitative Studies: Justify in terms of problem statement and phenomenon.

     
5.    Uses citations from seminal (authoritative) sources (textbooks and/or empirical research literature) to justify the selected methodology. Note:Introductory or survey research textbooks (such as Creswell) are not considered seminal sources.      
6.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on the Methodology and Design in the 10 Strategic Points.This section becomes the foundation for the Research Methodology in Chapter 1 of the Proposal and the basis for developing Chapter 3, Research Methodology.
Reviewer Comments:

 

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

This section describes the specific research design to answer the research questions and why that approach to the design of the study was selected. Here, the learner discusses why the selected design is the best design to address the problem statement and research questions as compared to other designs. This section contains a description of the research sample being studied, as well as, the process that will be used to collect the data on the sample. This means that the learner briefly describes the data collection instruments/sources or materials and how they will be administered.

The design section succinctly conveys the particular design research approach to answer the research questions and/or test the hypotheses. Note, learners often confuse this section with the research methodology for their study. This section focuses on the key attributes of the design, which is a subset of the methodology. Here the learner needs to discuss 3 to 5 key attributes of the design, cited from research sources. After describing the critical attributes of the design, the learner should then discuss how these attributes align with the proposed study. Justification of the design requires the learner to go beyond listing the attributes of the design, but to also tell why those attributes are a best or appropriate fit for their stated problem and study. In addition, the learner needs to discuss why other designs (also subsets of the methodology) were not selected, and why those were not best suited to answering the research questions and the problem statement.

Criterion Score Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

This section describes the specific research design to answer the research questions and why this approach was selected. Here, the learner discusses why the selected design is the best design to address the problem statement and research questions as compared to other designs. This section contains a description of the research sample being studied, as well as, the process that will be used to collect the data on the sample.

 

The recommended length for this section is two tothree paragraphs and must address each criterion.

1.    Identifies and describes the selected design for the study.      
2.    Justifies why the selected design addresses the problem statement and research questions.

3.    Quantitative Studies: Justifies the selected design based on the appropriateness of the design to address the research questions and data for each variable.

4.    Qualitative Studies: Justifies the selected design based on appropriateness of design to address research questions and study the phenomenon.

     
5.    Briefly describes the target population and sample for the study.      
6.    Identifies the sources and instruments that will be used to collect data needed to answer the research questions.      
7.    Briefly describes data collection procedures to collect data on the sample.      
8.    Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section also elaborates on the Design portion ofthe Methodology and Design section in the 10 Strategic Points. This section provides the foundation for Nature of the Research Design for the Study in Chapter 1.
Reviewer Comments:

 

Sources of Data

The data will be collected leveraging a mixed methods approach focusing on common themes within the interview process and identifying the numerically coded responses within the survey instruments. The sources of data will come from the collective body of research within the literature and will also derive from the evaluation of the interview process. The instrumentation of the quantitative data will primarily derive from a 25-question survey instrument, which will numerically code to make scoring and cross contextual analysis easy. A mixed methods approach can be effective in determining numerical processes within the data and can be an effective tool to compare this to common themes within the literature review (Sandra, 2018). This will require full IRB approval and the data will be applicable to focus on the parameters in terms of how this intervention can exist.

 

Criterion Score Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

RESEARCH MATERIALS, INSTRUMENTATION, OR SOURCES OF DATA

This section identifies and describes the types of data that will be collected, as well as the specific research materials, instruments, and sources used to collect those data (tests, surveys, validated instruments, questionnaires, interview protocols, databases, media, etc.).

 

The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs.  Note: this section can be set up as a bulleted list.

Quantitative-  Instruments/Research Materials:

Provides a bulleted list of the instrumentation and/or materials for data collection.

Describes the survey instruments or equipment/materials used (experimental research), and specifies the type and level of data collected with each instrument.

Includes citations from original publications by instrument developers (and subsequent users as appropriate) or related studies.

     
Qualitative – Sources of Data:

Describes the structure of each data collection instrument and data sources (tests, questionnaires, interview protocols, observations databases, media, etc.).

     
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      

NOTE: This section elaborates on theData Collection from the 10 Strategic Points.

This information is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in the Proposal in the Nature of the Research Design for the Study section. This section provides the foundation for Research Materials,Instrumentation (quantitative)orSources of Data (qualitative)section in Chapter 3.

Reviewer Comments:

Data Collection

The data collection approach will focus on Interviews and also a contextual analysis of the articles by currently using existing literature for contextual analysis Max QDA Software will be used for analysis. The data analysis approach will focus on a contextual analysis identifying common themes within the literature review, and also the common themes that were identified through the qualitative interviews. The collection process will provide an effective baseline that could assist in understanding the precise steps that must be applied to improve efficiency, and clearly identify what particular areas of improvement must realistically be applied. Education historically has correlated with a reduction in medication error and is used to promote effective intervention that should be applied and understood early on (DeBrew, 2019).

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

DATA COLLECTION AND MANAGEMENT

This section details the data collection process and procedures so that another researcher could conduct or replicate the study. It includes authorizations and detailed steps.

The recommended length for this section is a bullet or numbered list of data collection steps that should not exceed one page.

Quantitative Studies:Lists steps for the actual data collection that would allow replication of the study by another researcher, including how each instrument or data source was used, how and where data were collected, and recorded. Includes a linear sequence of actions or step-by-step of procedures used to carry out all the major steps for data collection. Includes a workflow and corresponding timeline, presenting a logical, sequential, and transparent protocol for data collection that would allow another researcher to replicate the study.

Data from different sources may have to be collected in parallel (e.g., paper-and-pen surveys for teachers, corresponding students, and their parents AND retrieval of archival data from the school district). A flow chart is ok—”linear” may not apply to all situations

Qualitative Studies: Provides detailed description of data collection process, including all sources of data and methods used, such as interviews, member checking, observations, surveys, field tests, and expert panel review. Note: The collected data must be sufficient in breadth and depth to answer the research question(s) and interpreted and presented correctly, by theme, research question, and/or source of data.

            3    
Describes the procedures for obtaining participant informed consent and for protecting the rights and well-being of the study sample participants. 3    
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format. 3    
NOTE:This section elaborates on the Sample and Location and Data Collection in the 10 Strategic Points. This section provides the foundation for the Data Collection Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal. And it is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in Nature of the Research Design for the Study in the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments:

Data Analysis Procedures

The data will be evaluated from a mixed methods approach, to define the correct steps and approaches that should be applied. The analysis will then be coded numerically top establish a score that will be used to identify common themes within the instrument that will be coded. A total of 20 instruments will be sent out to nurseparticipants, and the data will be used to identify level of evidence-based practice application and also understanding that is associated with the individual that is being evaluated. The instrument will provide a numeric score that evaluates educational awareness and also focus on the level of educational understanding that an individual will have. The will be correlated with number of medication errors that a nurse experienced and how quickly they were recognized. Understanding medication error correlates with education early on in nursing education (McAndrew et. al., 2019).

 

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

This section provides detailed steps for the analytic procedures to be used to conduct data analysis.

The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs, can also be presented in bulleted format.

Describes in detail the relevant data collected for each stated research question and/or each variable within each hypothesis (if applicable).

 

Quantitative Studies: “In detail” means scales (and subscales) of specified instruments AND type of data for each variable of interest. IMPORTANT: For (quasi) experimental studies, provide detailed description of all treatment materials per treatment condition, as part of the description of the independent variable corresponding to the experimental manipulation.

3    
What: Describes, in detail, statistical and non-statistical analysis to be used and procedures used to conduct the data analysis.

Quantitative Studies: (1) describe data file preparation (descriptive statistics used to check completeness and accuracy; for files from different sources, possibly aggregating data to obtain a common unit of analysis in all files, necessarily merging files (using the key variable defining the unit of analysis); (2) computation of statistics for the sample profile; (3) computation of (subscales and) scales; (4) reliability analysis for all scales and subscales; (5) computation of descriptive statistics for all variables of interest in the study (except those already presented in the sample profile); (6) state and justify all statistical procedures (“tests”) needed to generate the information to answer all research questions; and (7) state assumptions checks for all those statistical procedures (including the tests and / or charts to be computed).

 

Qualitative Studies: This section begins by identifying and discussing the specific analysis approach or strategy, followed by a discussion of coding procedures to be used. Note: coding procedures may be different for Thematic Analysis, Narrative Analysis, Phenomenological Analysis, or Grounded Theory Analysis.

3    
Why: Provides the justification for each of the (statistical and non-statistical) data analysis procedures used in the study. 3    
Show Steps that Support Evidence

Quantitative Analysis – states the level of statistical significance for each test as appropriate, and describes tests of assumptions for each statistical test.

Qualitative Analysis – evidence of qualitative analysis approach, such as coding and theming process, must be completely described and included the analysis /interpretation process. Clear evidence from how codes moved to themes must be presented.

3    
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format. 3    
NOTE: This section elaborates on the Data Analysis from the 10 Strategic Points.This section provides the foundation for Data Analysis Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.

 

Reviewer Comments:

 

 

Ethical Considerations

Because data will be collected through an instrument directly from the target population that may have dealt with medication errors, ethical considerations must be mitigated.  All participants will be numerically coded in conjunction with the instrument that they complete, and this will protect their identiy and will also ensure that confidentiality represents the highest standard. The instrument will also disclose to participants that if any question causes any form of distress that they are not compelled to answer the question, and that they are free to not participate in the research at any time if they deem fit.  I will then proceed to get IRB approval from Grand Canyon University to conduct the research.  All participants will be told that participation is voluntary and if there is any form of distress they should not participate within the research.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Ethical Considerations

This section discusses the potential ethical issues surrounding the research, as well as how human subjects and data will be protected. It identifies how any potential ethical issues will be addressed.

 

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

1.    Describes site authorization process, subject recruiting, and informed consent processes. 3    
2.    Describes how the identities of the participants in the study and data will be protected. 3    
3.    Discusses potential ethical concerns that might occur during the data collection process. 3    
4.    ALIGNMENT: Ethical considerations are clearly aligned with, and relate directly to the specific Data Collection Procedures. This section also identifies ethical considerations related to the target population being researched and organization or location as described in the Purpose Statement section. 3    
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format. 3    
NOTE: This section does not include information from any of the 10 Strategic Points.

This section provides the foundation for Ethical Considerations section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.

Reviewer Comments:

 

 

 

References

Aram, R. (2018) Evolutionary Business Information Systems”. Business and Information Systems Engineering. 6 (1): 33–36. doi

Chan, R. et. al. (2019) Nursing Students’ Perceived Self-Efficacy and the Generation of Medication Errors with the Use of an Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR) in Clinical …,International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship , Volume 22

Davis, R. et. al. (2017) Disclosing Medical Errors to Patients: Attitudes and Practices of Physicians and Trainees”. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 22 (7): 988–96.

Debrew, R. (2019) Successful and unsuccessful clinical nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education51 (7), 389–395. doi:

Matt, R. (2018) Level of confidence among nursing students in the clinical setting. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences18, 404–407. doi:

McAndrew, R. et. al. (2019) Reducing medication errors: Teaching strategies that increase nursing students’ awareness of medication errors and their prevention. Nurse Education Today52, 7–9.

Muskat, R. (2019) Mixed methods: Combining expert interviews, cross-impact analysis and scenario development. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 10(1): 9–21.

Naton, R. (2019) Factors affecting nursing students’ intention to report medication errors: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Nurse Education Today58, 38–42.

Rogers, R. et. al. (2019) Improving medication safety based on reports in computerized patient safety systems. Computers, Informatics, Nursing34(3), 122–127. doi:

Sandra, R. (2017) Mixed Methods Research”. The International Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods. pp. 1–33.

Wondmieneh et al. BMC Nursing (2020). 19:4 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-0397-0.

Yang, R. et. al. (2016) Impact of transformational leadership on nurse work outcomes”. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 72 (11): 2879–2893.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A

The 10 Strategic Points for the Prospectus, Proposal, and Dissertation

Introduction

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A
The 10 Strategic Points for the Prospectus, Proposal, and Dissertation

Introduction

In the Prospectus, Proposal and Dissertation there are 10 key or strategic points that need to be clear, simple, correct, and aligned to ensure the research is doable, valuable, and credible. These points, which provide a guide or vision for the research, are present in almost any research. They are defined within this 10 Strategic Points document.You should include an updated, aligned 10 Strategic Points in this appendix for your chair and methodologist to reference.  Below are the instructions for constructing a 10 Strategic Points for your reference.

The 10 Strategic Points

The 10 strategy points emerge from researching literature on a topic thatis based on, or aligned with, the defined need in the literature as well as the learner’s personal passion, future career purpose, and degree area. The 10 Strategic Points document includes the following 10 key or strategic points that define the research focus and approach:

  1. Topic—Provides a board research topic area/title.
  2. Literature review—Lists primary points for four sections in the Literature Review:(a) Background of the problem/gap and the need for the study based on citations from the literature; (b) Theoretical foundations (models and theories to be foundation for study); (c) Review of literature topics with key theme for each one; (d) Summary.
  3. Problem statement—Describes the problem to address through the study based on defined needs or gaps from the literature.
  4. Sample and location—Identifies sample, needed sample size, and location (study phenomena with small numbers and variables/groups with large numbers).
  5. Research questions—Provides research questions to collect data to address the problem statement.
  6. Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena—Provides hypotheses with variables for each research question (quantitative) or describes the phenomena to be better understood (qualitative).
  7. Methodology and design—Describes the selected methodology and specific research design to address problem statement and research questions.
  8. Purpose statement—Provides a one-sentence statement of purpose including the problem statement, methodology, design, population sample, and location.
  9. Data collection—Describes primary instruments and sources of data to answer research questions.
  10. Data analysis—Describes the specific data analysis approaches to be used to address research questions.

The Process for Defining the Ten Strategic Points

The order of the 10 strategic points listed above reflects the order in which the work is done by the learner. The first five strategic points focus primarily on defining the focus for the research based on a clearly defined need or gap from the literature as well as the learner’s passion, purpose and specialty area focus. First, a learner identifies a broad topic area to research for their dissertation based on a clearly defined need or gap from the literature—that they are interested in because it is based on their personal passion, future career purpose, and degree being pursued. Second, the learner completes a review of the literature to define the need or gap they will address, the theories and models that will provide a foundation for their research, related topics that are needed to demonstrate their expertise in their field, and define the key strategic points behind their proposed research. Third, the learner develops a clear, simple, one- sentence problem statement that defines the problem, or gap, that will be addressed by the research. Fourth, the learner identifies some potential population samples they would have access to in order to collect the data for the study, considering the fact the quantitative study sample sizes need to be much larger than those for qualitative studies. Fifth, the learner develops a set of research questions that will define the data needed to address the problem statement.

Based on the above five strategic points the learner now defines the key aspects of the research methodology through the last five strategic points. Sixth, the learner either describes the phenomena to be studied (if it is a qualitative study), or develops a set of hypotheses (matching the research questions) that defines the variables that will be the focus for the research (if it is a quantitative study). Seventh, the learner determines if the study will be qualitative, quantitative based on (a) the best approach for the research, (b) the size of the sample they can get permission to access, (c) availability of data collection tools and sources, and (d) time and resources to conduct the study. Additionally, they select the best design approach considering these same factors. Eighth, the learner develops a purpose statement by integrating the problem statement, methodology, design, sample, and location. Ninth, the learner identifies the data they will need to collect to address the research questions or hypotheses and how they will collect the data (e.g., interviews, focus groups, observations, tested and validated instruments or surveys, data bases, public media, etc.) Tenth, they identify the appropriate data analysis, based on their design, to be used to answer their research questions and address their problem statement.

Criteria for Evaluating the Ten Strategic Points: Clear, Simple, Correct and Aligned

When developing research, it is important to define the 10 strategic points so they are simple,clear,and correct in order to ensure anyone who reviews them will easily understand them.It is important to align all of the 10 strategic points to ensure it will be possible to conduct and complete the research. The problem statement must come out of the literature. The research questions must collect the data needed to answer the problem statement. The methodology and design must be appropriate for the problem statement and research questions. The data collection and data analysis must provide the information to answer the research questions (qualitative) or test the hypotheses (quantitative). Developing the 10 Strategic Points as a two to three-page document can help ensure clarity, simplicity, correctness, and alignment of each of these ten key or strategic points in the prospectus, proposal, and dissertation. Developing these 10 strategic points on a two to three-page document also provides an easy-to-use use template to ensure the 10 strategic points are always worded the same throughout the prospectus, proposal, and dissertation.

 

 

Appendix B
Variables/Groups, Phenomena, and Data Analysis

Instructions: Complete the applicable table to assist with your research design. Use Table 1 for quantitative studies. Use Table 2 for qualitative studies. This table is intended to define how you will collect and analyze the specific data for each research question (qualitative) and each variable (quantitative). Add additional rows to your table if needed.

 

Table 1

Quantitative Studies

Research Questions:

State the research Questions

Hypotheses:

State the hypotheses to match each Research question

List of Variables/Groups to Collect Data For:

Independent and Dependent Variable(s)

Instrument(s)

To collect data for each variable

Analysis Plan

Data analysis approach to (1) describe data and (2) test the hypothesis

1.        
2.        
3.        

 

 

 

Table 2

Qualitative Studies

Research Questions: State the Research Questions that will be used to collect data to understand the Phenomenon being studied Phenomenon:

Describe the overall phenomenon being studied by the research questions

Sources of Data:

Identify the specific approach (e.g., interview, observation, artifacts, documents, database, etc.) to be used to collect the data to answer each Research Question

Analysis Plan: Describe the specific approach that will be used to (1) summarize the data and (2) analyze the data.
1.      
2.      
3.      

 

 

 

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