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1st Student Teshon Earl
Spoofing is the act of disguising a communication so that it appears to originate from a known, trusted source while in the actual sense, the source is unknown. Spoofing generally happens in the communication channels like email, phone calls and websites (Atoum et al., 2017). Other sophisticated spoofing techniques are used in places where the IP address is hidden, the address resolution protocol or the domain name of the system server is disguised to appear as authentic. This is cybercrime and a threat to national security because sensitive information can be accessed through this.
Atoum, Y., Liu, Y., Jourabloo, A., & Liu, X. (2017, October). Face anti-spoofing using patch and depth-based CNNs. In 2017 IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB) (pp. 319-328). IEEE.
Ulrich, M. (2017, May). The Use of Motion-Based Technology in Oil and Gas Supply Chain Logistics. In Offshore Technology Conference. Offshore Technology Conference.
2nd Student William Paasewe
GPS is controlled and funded by the United States Department of Defense (DOD), where the system is normally referred to as, NAVSTAR-which stands for Navigational Satellite Timing And Ranging. The GPS space segment works by orbiting the Earth and transmitting timing and ranging messages, while the control segment monitors the health and position of the satellites in the space segment before transmitting correction information back up to the satellites. The 3rd and last component of the GPS is the user segment where the hand-held or other receivers used to interpret the messages broadcast from the satellites.
Spoofing or a spoofing attack can be classified in three different groups: Simplistic, intermediate, and sophisticated. Baziar, Moazedi, & Mosavi (2017) alleges that the simplistic spoofer attaches a power amplifier and an antenna to a GPS signal simulator and then radiates the radio frequency (RF) signal toward the target receiver. The intermediate group synchronizes its counterfeit signals with the authentic GPS signal, wile the sophisticated group which is said to be the most effective method of the spoofing generation, uses physical limitations for placing the attacker antenna toward the victim’s receiver to dupe them. To put this simply, spoofing is just another form of hacking a system in order to carry out a cyber attack.
Baziar, R. A., Moazedi, M, & Mosavi, R. M. (2017,August). Journal of applied research and technology.
Volume 15, Issue 4. Pp. 402-411
USDA. (2007, August). Introduction to global positioning systems (GPS): Maryland. NRCS
3rd Student Christopher Neal
The system consists of a network of 27 satellites, of which 24 are used for the operation of the system and three are reserved for redundancy(Marshall & Harris, 2006). This network of satellites is considered the transmitter of the signal. Here on Earth, anything equipped with a GPS receiver can utilize the signals that are provided by the orbiting satellites. Marshal and Harris (2006) explain in their article that each of the 27 satellites weighs three to four thousand pounds and rotate around the earth twice a day. The satellites are also arranged in such a way that at any given time there are at least four of them visible from any point on the surface of the Earth (Marshall & Harris, 2006). The job of the receiver is to pick up the signal provided by the satellites and then use that signal to produce a distance to the transmitter. Once that distance is verified it then takes another distance from another one of the four visible satellites and begins to triangulate a position based off of where those spheres intersect ( Marshall and Harris, 2006).
As stated previously, the system was invented by the Unites States military for war fighting. As time has worn on, the need for the system in numerous applications in the civilian market has skyrocketed. The average American now gets to enjoy the value of the GPS system every day when they look at their cellular telephone and use it to locate something they are looking for or to navigate themselves in unfamiliar territory in their car.
Since GPS is such a coveted system, there is much concern that someday our adversaries might to destroy or disrupt it , rendering the systems who rely on it’s signal either in a degraded state or completely useless. Williamson (2014) explains that spoofing can be used to describe any number of ways that GPS hardware can be tricked. This trickery would cause a vessel, truck, or airplane to veer off course due to the signals being taken in by a GPS receiver being counterfeit. Spoofing is a real-world concern for not only the civilian sector but also the military. The military has mimicked this type of threat in their training scenarios and continues to exercise caution when it comes to being totally reliant on GPS signal. Civilians however have not followed suit. For example in the Aviation field the primary means of navigation used to be Radio Navigation, now, with the high costs of maintaining radio navigation aides, VOR’s, NDB’s, VORTAC’s, etc. the FAA has decided to decommission many of these systems or simply not fix them when they break. The replacement has been the GPS system which is very reliable, but also very easily corrupted.
(Marshall and Harris, 2006)
The figure above is a graphical representation of the process of triangulating a position using the global positioning system.
Marshall, B., & Harris, T. (2006, September 25). How GPS receivers work. HowStuffWorks. https://electronics.howstuffworks.com/gadgets/travel/gps.htm
Williamson, M. (2014). GPS spoofing (Order No. 1562613). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1566353651). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/1566353651?accountid=8289
Zhang, Z., Liu, X., & Holt, K. (2018). Positive Train Control (PTC) for railway safety in the United States: Policy developments and critical issues. Utilities Policy, 51, 33–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2018.03.002
4th Student Carl Tucker
(n.d.). RFID Technology Helps Kids Play It Safe at Florida’s Wannado City Theme Park. Retrieved from https://www.govtech.com/products/RFID-Technology-Helps-Kids-Play-It.html
5th Student Joseph Miller
One background piece of data is the use of Zebra MotionWorks on a dairy farm. The use of the RFID system allowed for a better understanding of cow movements and alerted staff when something out of the ordinary was happening. This allowed for vets to quickly respond to the cows needs. Over time, the business was able to see a 25% increase in milk production and they believe it is because of the RFID system ( Zebra Technologies, 2018).
A few questions for the study are:
1. What is the variation in movement of the cows?
2. How much do the cows graze versus stay in their stalls?
3. How does health play a role in milk production and does being able to quickly address health issues help?
4. Which RFID system offers the easiest user interfaces and set-up / cost effectivesness?
5. What is the variation of milk production between cows that are utilizing RFIS systems versus none?
The research would require other considerations such as climate and age of cows. I would set the study at one year production.
Zebra Technologies. (2018). Zebra MotionWorks Case Study: Dairy Farming. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SXa8ZkhNKes
6th Student Rayvonne Sang
For this week’s forum, I chose to research the problem of tracking student attendance in the classroom. Having taught a class or two at my workplace, I usually pass around a paper attendance roster so that I can track how many people attended my class. In the past, I would have each student print their names and employee identification numbers on a piece of paper, so that I could manually enter their information into our training database after the class. The key problem was accurately putting their individual information into a training database, which was very time-consuming. My suggestion would be to use an RFID reader that could be placed just inside the doorway, to scan employee badges as they entered the classroom (Pireva, Siqeca & Berisha, 2016).
As the employees walk into the classroom, the RFID scanner would read each durable tag as the students entered the classroom. Although the durable tags cost more (€5 each which is equivalent to $5.40 in the U.S.) they can read each tag better than the label tags even if they are inside of a pocket, purse, or laying on top of a desk (Pireva et al., 2016). The label tags are prone to interference such as standing up in front of the tag as it lays on a desk (Pireva et al., 2016). The use of durable RFID tags will save the instructor from distractions and having to set aside time for attendance at the beginning of the class. The next step would be to save the names and employee numbers and import them into the training database. The time saved in the use of this process would allow a company to process multiple classes in a shorter timeframe.
Pireva, K., Siqeca, J., & Berisha, S. (2016). RFID: Management System for students’ attendance. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474667016342288
MAKE SURE EACH STUDENT IS ASKED A QUESTION!!!!!
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