Internal and external causes Internal and external outcomes Arab spring http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/HistoryPStudies/PDF_Files/01_V-30-No1-Jun17.pdf
CAUSES AND IMPACTS OF THE ARAB UPRISING IN 20101/2011
Date of submission.
The Arab uprising was an anti-governmental series of protests, armed rebellions, and uprisings that layout across a better part of the Arab world in the early months of 2010. Several factors led to the rebellion; hence some impacts came about as a result of the Revolt. Arabs occupy about 22 countries in the Arab League, including Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Somalia, Morocco, Palestine, Yemen, Sudan, Djibouti, and many other nations, including the United Arab Emirates(UAE). This essay seeks to elaborate on the uprising of Arab, causes as well as its effects.
An Arabic person can be defined as a colleague among the sematic people who mostly occupy the North of Africa and the Middle East. Arabs are tied by linguistic, ethnic, cultural nationalist political religion as well as historical factors. The Arabs are easily identifiable as they have a unique way of life that differentiates from other things, for example, their religion, their geographic position, history, and many other factors. Egypt is considered one of the oldest Arab countries as it traces its existence from 969AD. Arab from the past was known as Hebrew in the times of biblical people.
Arab is, therefore, the Modern Hebrew, where it is revised from the bible. The Arabs practice Islam religion where they worship and pray to a supreme being called Allah. The Abrahamic faiths refer to their celestial being as Allah; therefore, there is a close association between Islam and Christians as Christianity came later in the era of Jesus while Islamic existed in the early period of Abraham. The Arabs also talk Arabic, which represents various aspects. For example, Arabic can refer to ethnicity, including Afro Arabs, Arab-Berbers, and general Arabs. Moreover, Arabic can also refer to native speakers of the language as well as other definitions.
Furthermore, the Arabs in their religion draw their information from the Quran, which is their divine source. Their modes of dressing, which involve cover-ups of almost the complete body, quickly make them unidentifiable hence standing out even if their identity is unknown. Similarly, their women are known to be secretive or sacred as they hide all parts of their body and leave a space for vision. The community is a unique community of its own with specific beliefs and practices.
Islam is often known to be united, mainly because they tend to live in almost the same areas. The Middle East borders the north of Africa, where most Arabs are located. They refer themselves as brothers as they are known to be united and generous to each other. They attend their services and maintain inevitable regulation, which many people adore as the Arabs are die-hards in their practices. However, besides the unity in the community, there was an uprising that broke out, leading to an Arab spring among Arabic countries.
The Arab Spring took place in the north of Africa and the Middle East, where most Arab countries are located. December 18th, 2010 marked the revolution of the uprising spreading to later dates (Lynch,2013). The uprising challenged authoritarian regimes leading to protests in economic and political atrocities that were challenged with violent crackdowns by the security forces of the countries. The Jasmine revolution in Tunisia was the first insurgency which contributes highly to the spread of the other riots. Also known as the Tunisia revolution started on December 18th, 2010. It is called the Jasmine revolution because in Tunisia, along with the more extensive Arab community call changes and protests in the government, SidiBouzid Rebellion, where Sidi, is a city where the first rebellion took place. In Tunisia, however, the rise of power of Ben Ali in 1987 was called jasmine revolution hence the name.
The uprising started in Tunisia because of the ill-treatment of Mohamed Bouazizi, self-immolation in police protest, and corruption. With the demonstration, there was a trigger of other similar occurrences in neighboring Arab countries. The other countries involved in the uprising include Egypt, which followed after Tunisia, Yemen, Libya, and Syria, respectively, were the last revolution was in 2012.
Several factors lead to the emergence of the Arab uprising. The primary factors however, are the nature of the violent Arab regime, repressive behavior, and political corruption. Other causes include human rights violations in Bahrain, unemployment, poverty, education dissatisfaction, and monarchy as experienced in Libya. The revolution in Tunisia over the government’s downfall sparked a revolution where Egypt also fell in pursuit (Salih, 2013). Tunisia practices a democratic type of government where there is a framework of a semi prudential unitary representative. The president acts as the supreme head of state, and the French civil law regulates a prime minister who heads the government, However their legislature and judiciary. The Tunisian government tried to curb the jasmine revolution by using force through violence by offering economic and political privilege.
The actions promoted more protests, compelling Ben Ali to step down and fleeing the country in January 2011(Schraeder,2012). Later on, the Tunisians had a free election, choosing council members responsible for drafting a new constitution. Elected leaders took roles in late December 2011; hence a positive impact in the nations there was a free election of leaders who they were sure would cater to their needs and also listen to them, unlike Ben Ali. The latter, shortly after escape, revolutions broke out in Egypt.
The Egyptian government, just like Tunisia, tried to stop the protests, but their efforts were futile. Many demonstrations took place to a point where the Egyptian army decided and announced the removal of President Hosni Mubarak as the protests were beyond control. With the military’s loss, the president left his office on February 11th after being on the seat for about thirty years. In this case, the military played a vital role in the dismissal of the president; hence, in their new administration, they enjoyed a high approval by the public. Nevertheless, their positivity was brought down after the new administration appeared adamant in the power transfer; hence there was a resume of the use of violence against any protestors, which became regular. However, despite the revolts, there was a continuity of parliamentary elections, which proceeded as programmed (Abdou& Zaazou,2013).
The victory of the protests in Egypt and Tunisia encouraged protest movements in Bahrain, Yemen, Syria, and Lybia.In the states, however, the demonstrations were worse as it involved bloody struggles between ruling and protesting groups. In Yemen, for example, there was an alienation of pro-democracy protestors who linked themselves with military and tribal leaders to overthrow President Ali Abd Allah Salih. However, the analogous plans failed, resulting in a clash of oppositions and the loyalists of the president. The president was harmed giving hope to the debate, but after some time, he returned and transferred his power to the vice president Mansur Hadi who stood as a sole presidential elect hence winning the election.
Moreover, in Bahrain, marginalized and human rights activists started protesting for political and economic reforms. There was violent suppression with aid from UAE and Saudi Arabian soldiers who penetrated the country in March. There is a contrast in Bahrain as the protests were sustained, leading to loss of employment,conviction, and imprisonment of the marginalized and activist people involved in the rebellion. In addition, the marginalized people were Shiite workers; thus, most of their worship places were demolished by the government in reference to their Revolt (Pandya,2010). Later after the punishments, there were investigations where there were findings of harsh and torturous force used against the protestors, which contributed to the reformations of the government.
The Libya protest was the most popular and known protest, where the people protested against Muammar al Qaddafi’s leadership. The demonstrations quickly sored, but there were visible defeats; thus, NATO came into their rescue launching strikes, which targeted Qaddafi. Muammar was a strong leader who, besides his opposes getting help still somehow managed to power in the capital for more months. In August 2011, the rebel forces managed to take control of the capital Tripoli hence ceasing Qaddafi, who had fled to avoid being captured. He was later killed in October by the rebels who had control of the country before it became challenging were the Transitional National Council (TNC) took power later on.
In conclusion, The Arab uprising is not only one event but several protests which had similar objectives, which were reformations in the regimes leading to the protests. Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, and Libya felt the blow of the uprising where some of the brought about changes in government. In contrast, others like Bahrain failed to lead to constituency punishments. The protests in Egypt and Tunisia greatly influenced the new governance available currently; hence it was worth the fight as the effect of the demonstrations is positive as they changed the form of management. Similarly, with the assassination of Qaddafi, Libya has become a better county currently.
Salih, K. E. O. (2013). The roots and causes of the 2011 Arab uprisings. Arab Studies Quarterly, 35(2), 184-206.
Schraeder, P. J. (2012). Tunisia’s Jasmine revolution & the Arab Spring: Implications for international intervention. Orbis, 56(4), 662-675.
Lynch, M. (2013). The Arab uprising: The unfinished revolutions of the new Middle East. Hachette UK.
Abdou, D. S., &Zaazou, Z. (2013).The Egyptian revolution and post-socio-economic impact.Topics in Middle Eastern and African Economies, 15(1), 92-115.
Pandya, S. (2010).Women’s Shi ‘i Ma’atim in Bahrain. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 6(2), 31-58.
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