Choose a health profession other than medicine or nursing that has a licensure, certification or other formal credentialing mechanism and write a five to six page paper following the American Medical Association guide (AMA citation style). Examples include physical therapist, physician assistant, dentist, respiratory therapist, pharmacist, radiologic technologist, dental hygienist, podiatrist, occupational therapist, health educator, athletic trainer, nursing home administrator and sanitarian/environmental health specialist.
Use the following as headings and write the paper in a question-answer format in the following order:
1) What are the roles, responsibilities, and restrictions (e.g. prescribing medications, working with autonomy, etc.) placed upon your chosen health profession in the delivery of health care and/or public health services? Specifically identify the roles in prevention. (15 points)
2) What are the educational requirements including admissions prerequisites and admissions tests, licensure, certification or other credentialing requirements? Are there continuing education requirements? (15 points)
3) What are the career opportunities including salary ranges and employment trends? (15 points)
What do you conclude are the positive and negative aspects of the profession? Explain why you have come to each of these conclusions. (15 points)
4)Critique of References: For at least two of your most commonly used citations, evaluate each one separately indicating each component of quality using the criteria presented in Riegelman on p. 63. (12 points)
I UPLOADED SOME EXAMPLES TO LOOK AT.
I am currently a pre-veterinary student and plan on graduating with two types of degrees. The first will be my A.A. degree in Veterinary Technology and become a licensed RVT. The second will be my Doctorates in Veterinary Medicine and become a board certified D.V.M. For my midterm paper I am choosing to discuss the health profession of a RVT which is a Registered Veterinary Technician.
As a RVT the responsibility they have is quite large. They are essentially there to assist and be the Veterinarians nurse in whatever they need. That can range from aiding care to the animals, developing a general initial evaluation of the patient, assisting in taking and developing x-rays, running blood, fecal, and or urine test, plus much more (5/6). The difference of an RVT and Veterinarian are that RVT’s are not authorized to diagnosis and present a prognosis, prescribe medications, and perform surgeries (5). Although an RVT specifically attends to the well health of animals, it is the well health of living beings that most people consider as part of their families. However, the health of animals, especially domestic, does have an effect on the people around them. For example, many RVT’s in zoo’s as well as general practices know the importance of making sure the animals well health is up to par from vaccinations to annual exams (5/6). Making sure that the animals are healthy prevent the outbreak of diseases and keep them at bay if they do contract one (3/5). It is important to see how animal’s health can be just as essential as our own because although many diseases are not transferred from humans to animals there are diseases that can be transferred from animals to humans such as Rabies and Giardia an intestinal parasite that can is also known as a diarrheal disease transferred fecal/orally (3).
To become a licensed RVT one must first have their general education requirements fulfilled with passing grades (1/5). From there they will need to have a course in microbiology done as well as the basic math and English requirements (1/5). At that point they will be eligible to apply to a Veterinary Technology Program at an accredited school which must be California approved or AVMA accredited (1). The program they enlist in must include practical education of 300 hours of instruction in specified areas, and experience of 4,416 hours of practical experience in specified areas in no less than 24 months under the direct supervision of a veterinarian licensed in the United States (1). After successful completion of the program they will be qualified to take the CVTE, California Veterinary Technician Exam (1). The application fee for the exam is $125.00 and the fee to take the exam is $175.00. When taking the exam, students must bring a photo and ID, transcripts and documentation of graduation, diplomas, track list showing proof of experience, official transcripts, letter of good standing and licensure, as well as the course catalog of their school outlining and describing their education and breakdown of hours (1). After all that is done and they pass the exam, they will get their license stating their title as a RVT, Registered Veterinary Technician. There is possibility to specialize as a technician and become a technologist. For that you’ll need to graduate with a B.S. at a four year AMVA accredited school (1/4).
As of 2015 the median annual pay for a RVT is about $31,800.00 a year and about $15.49 an hour (4). Technicians that work in research positions and laboratories often earn more due to the demand and the fact that the job requires 24 hour staffing (4). Most however end up working for hospitals, ER’s, and clinics because of the where they did their externships (4). There is always a possibility for more, especially in salary because of the importance and high demand of RVT’s.
Working in the animal field as an RVT can have vast negative and positive outcomes. Like most we get into the field because we love animals and by doing what RVT’s do we can help them and contribute to the cause of good health. The positives of being an RVT are that you have the ability and knowledge to help animals, you learn valuable skills in which you can take with you if you choose to move up in the field, and you get to be in a position where you can help share awareness of the importance of animal health with the clients (2/4/5). Nevertheless, there can be draw backs, unfortunately many don’t live forever and you develop bonds with many of these animals that it hurts just as much as losing a close friend as it does to lose them. Not all can be saved and when that happens we have to experience one of the saddest duties that come with the job, Euthanizing. As you can see there are not a lot of citing’s for this question because I have answered this based of my experience working and training in an animal hospital for about a year now. It never gets easier and for me it is the hardest thing I will eventually have to do. There is also dealing with the clients, most of them can be “cost conscious” and stubborn and in those times it is hard to be able to do your job when an obstacle like that is presented in front of you let alone five times day. Overall, along with the hours, and negative aspects those kind of days can really impact and build on ones will and some do quit because of the load they feel they had to carry. I have come to this conclusion based off of the information given to me from articles on the duties and responsibilities of a RVT’s as well as experiencing the reality of it by working in an animal hospital and talking to many Veterinarians and RVT’s.
Overall Site quality: 5
Scale of 1-5, 5 being the most adequate
Overall Site quality: 4
Scale of 1-5, 5 being the most adequate
A Career as an Epidemiologist
What are the roles, responsibilities, and restrictions (e.g. prescribing medications, working with autonomy, etc.) placed upon your chosen health profession in the delivery of health care and/or public health services? Specifically identify the roles in prevention.
The duties of epidemiologists are to look at the bigger picture to see the health of populations at large. They have been key to how we now look at public health and have saved countless lives and will continue to save countless more. Epidemiologists are seen by many as disease detectives and are crucial to understanding the spread of new and old diseases alike. Epidemiologist Tom Tolbot says that their “role is basically like a public health officer” (1). Along with diseases, they are also involved in general health, injury, and public health preparedness (2).
While there are many different kinds of epidemiologists, they all typically have similar roles in overall scope. One of those things is to actually direct and create the studies used to learn ofnew ways to prevent health problems within a population.Their research is purely science based. They spend a lot of their time collecting and analyzing research and statistical data, both historical and contemporary, through all kinds of sources including surveys, studies, observations, interviews, samples of bodily fluids, etc. (2). This research extends from investigating risk factors such as pollution to actual disease causing agents such as harmful bacteria or viruses.
Their research can specialize in finding causes and solutions to any population related health issue including infectious diseases, mother and child health, chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, environmental health, injury, occupational health, oral health, and behavioral health (2). Common ways that epidemiologists do this is by looking at trends in the health statistics to see if there has been a rise or fall in any health issue and to figure out the reason.
Depending on what one is working on at the time they could be focusing on everything from the population of the whole world to a specific population of a precise demographic of people from a small village. They may look at a certain subset of a population but not centered in one area such as people of a certain race or the elderly across a country (3). Their research runs the gamut and is the backbone of our health directed lives that have over the years increased the life expectancy of so many people considerably. Their jobs are extremely important and will continue to remain equally important in the future as we face health issues in our communities, our country, and our world that warrant such vital people.
What are the educational requirements including admissions prerequisites and admissions tests, licensure, certification or other credentialing requirements? Are there continuing education requirements?
Though there are a very small percentage of epidemiologists with only a bachelor’s degree, most have at least a master’s degree. For those that are completing their master’s degree the most common is a degree in public health with an emphasis on epidemiology, but they can get degrees in a wide range of related areas (2). It’s now becoming more common for schools to offer master’s programs specifically in epidemiology where this wasn’t commonly an option before (4). There are also plenty of areas to specialize in if the student wants to make a career out of studying something particular such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, genetics, infectious disease, environmental cases and aging (4).
For everyone in epidemiology programs they need to complete classes with biology, public health, math, and statistics (2). To get into these school program they typically need not have majored in anything specific similar to being accepted to medical school but the incoming students do need to know what they are getting into in terms of the course load ahead. Aside from the courses, most schools also require that the students get involved with internships that typically range from a semester to a year (2).
Depending on the job, the epidemiologist may require a PhD or even a medical degree. This can include jobs involved in teaching or examining actual patients looking for and diagnosing disease. For those applying for master’s or PhD programs what’s often needed to get accepted are good general GRE results and a good GPA, usually at least a 3.0 GPA and with some, like UCLA, requiring at least a 3.5 GPA (5). Many also require letters of recommendations.
There is no certification requirement but if one chooses they may get an optional certification by completing a certification exam from The Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology (6). Continuing education is not necessary if one is happy with where one is after graduating but many choose to continue their education though courses from the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology or by getting an advanced degree beyond a master’s such as a medical degree or a PhD. These certifications and more advanced degrees can pad up their resume and allow them more options to choose a higher paying career within the field of epidemiology. (7)
What are the career opportunities including salary ranges and employment trends? (15 points)
The career possibilities for epidemiologists are projected to grow about 6% through 2024, which is about the average for all occupations measured (2). With advances in the area of big data it’s projected that this will help the field and grow demand but much of the growth will be tempered because of the lack of public funding since so much of the demand comes from the public sector like public hospitals. It remains to be seen if this increase in need will actually translate into an increase in hiring due to these funds issues.
Over the last decade the field of epidemiology has gained a lot of interest and with the added interest has seen a lot more graduates from these programs (2). Due to this, in the last couple of years there has been much stronger competition for jobs. Luckily, there are many different jobs within the field so if the graduate is open to anything he or she will find a place, but this puts a restraint on someone who has their heart set on a specific specialization that may be oversaturated. With the increasing amount of interest shown it is likely that this trend will only become worse with time.
The average salary is around $70,000 throughout the United States according to US News and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (1, 2). According to Salary.com the median is $89,000, with the lowest 10% receiving around $65,000 and the top 10% receiving on average $123,000 (8). The data reported from Salary.com claims it is from March of 2017 and the others are from 2015 but I still don’t know what to make of the discrepancy because everywhere else records the average salary at $65,000 to $70,000. Of course it varies depending on what part of the country we look so when looking at the average salary of epidemiologists based in San Francisco it ranges from $76,000 to $100,000 (1, 8).
What do you conclude are the positive and negative aspects of the profession? Explain why you have come to each of these conclusions.
In terms of job satisfaction, it appears to be about average in comparison to other careers. US News rates careers in a number of areas and has found that upward mobility is average, stress level is average, and flexibility is average (1). Overall, in comparison to other jobs it scored a 6 out of 10 when scoring on a mix of salary, job market, future growth, stress, and work life balance (1). This put epidemiologists at number 94 in the list of the 100 best jobs, and number 3 in the list of best science jobs (1). Making the top 100 jobs list andso high on the list of best science jobs is definitely a positive if epidemiology is where one finds their true calling.
Most often they work in offices and laboratories in either state and local governments, hospitals, and universities. This can be either a plus or a negative depending on if one is okay with being cooped up all the time. There are however so many different fields within epidemiology that if one chooses to they may be able to work outside of the office or lab in clinical settings, but that may require a medical degree (2). So too may they need to travel to different areas to do research and gain data.
The work schedules are standard but they do sometimes have to work long hours if the work is urgent (3). Since the majority are employed in the public field they will always have over their head the fact that government funding may get slashed in a recessionary period, thus potentially causing them their job. As well, since many choose to seek degrees beyond a master’s to advance their job prospects they have to spend even more money than they already spent in their master’s program to obtain either a PhD or amedical degree, both very expensive and time-consuming. Some of the diseases they work with are very infectious and so there is a degree of risk involved with the job, but since they are well trained to take the necessary precautions this only poses a small risk (9).
It is a rewarding job considering all the great things the work accomplishes for so many people. They can leave their shift each day knowing that they’re making a difference in the world. It is challenging and can help identify issues that nobody else has thought of before and are therefore on the front line of the defense and the attack of diseases and other health threats that menace us in the present and the future.
Critique of References:
The most helpful of my sources was the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, which I used most frequently. The overall site quality I would rate highly because the purpose of the site is clear, easy to navigate, and there is no advertising on the page considering it is a government-run site, thus is paid for by the taxpayers with no need for sponsors. The authors are not identified though so I don’t know who wrote the information other than it is was someone who works for the US Department of Labor. The information is reliable as it comes directly from such a trustworthy and important government organization.
This information couldn’t be easier to understand and is organized as efficiently as possible. It doesn’t appear to be giving any opinions and instead tries to be as factual as possible. The relevance is high because it pretty much answers all of the questions I had, though it may not answer the questions in as much depth as I would like if I were ready to become an epidemiologist. The articles that I used from this site were all written in 2015 so it is a tad outdated but still relevant.
There are plenty of working links for related information with them being from such accredited organizations such as the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. My privacy was protected as I didn’t need to enter any of my personal information to be able to use the site or to search for further information. Overall, despite there being a few issues such as it being a little outdated and it not stating the authors, I believe the source is a good one and would rate it very highly.
The second site that I used most, though not as often as the Department of Labor, was US News and World Report. It is an old magazine started in 1933 – the same site that does the yearly college rankings students often use to figure out which college they want to attend. The overall site quality is not perfect but it is easy to navigate with the purpose of the site being clear. The sponsors, however, are not clearly defined. There are ads on the pages because it is a private company trying to make a profit and when you reload the pages a different ad may show up but I cannot find an area of the site that specifically states a list of what their advertisers are, which clearly diminishes the overall site quality. If I cannot know what their advertisers are then I have doubts if I can truly trust the information presented.
The authors for the articles I read also were not mentioned and thus I cannot tell if they were written from someone who has any experience at all in the field. They say that they get the information used in the career articles from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, my main source, where they then assign number scores to various things like salary and flexibility to create an overall score. Since they are getting all of their information from the Bureau of Labor Statisticsthe basic information presented leave little room for opinion and the articles are presented as such with just a list of facts, which is a positive. The rankings, however, could be influenced by opinion by their very nature of assigning a number value to certain factors that people have differing opinions about. The site answered some of the questions that I had such as comparing the data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to other careers, which would be very time-consuming to do directly from the Bureau of Labor Statistics website on my own, but I question if I were to have come to the same conclusions.
US News and World Report does not say when the articles I read were created but I have to assume that since they retrieved the data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics that it must be when the Bureau of Labor Statistics posted their data, which was 2015. Aside from the working links that go to other areas of their own site, the only link to an outside site is that of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. My privacy is protected because I do not have to enter any information to browse or search through the website.
Since I know the source data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics is good it makes the data collection presented on US News and World Report valuablebut the negatives are that it is a private company that forces ads upon the user and does not state explicitly where they get their funding or the methodology in the rankings. Like the Bureau of Labor Statistics it does not state the author but this is more egregious coming from a private company and not a trusted government source. It also could show more links to related outside sites but I feel they didn’t have more than one because, being a private company, it makes money by keeping people on the site to have users view ads from their sponsors. I would rate the information presented on the site highly only because of the trusted source data but overall I would say the website as a whole is rated only a high medium in terms of quality standards.
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