Frequency Assignment | College Homework Help


You shall prepare this assignment in the form of briefing slides suitable for use in a technical presentation. You may use PowerPoint, handwritten notes that are scanned at a suitable resolution, or other equivalent techniques so long as the final media is legible and clear.

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Using the frequency or frequency range mid-point of the application you selected for Assignment #1, perform analyses that answer the following two questions:
Will your signal propagate in a rectangular waveguide with dimensions of 10mm x 20mm x 1m?
What is the velocity of propagation of your signal in a microstrip that has a relative dielectric constant of 9.8?
Prepare a briefing that includes:
The name of your application
The frequency range of operation
A one-page description of how it operates
Your answers to the assigned questions including enough mathematical detail to verify your work or locate errors
List of any works cited




Subject: Wireless Transmission in Radio Communication

Date: 5/10/2020


A radio frequency (RF) signal is often referred to as a wireless electromagnetic signal utilized as a communication channel when wireless electronics are to be discussed. One form of electromagnetic radiation is radio waves with known radio frequencies ranging between 3 kilohertzto 300 kilohertz. The frequency may be described as the degree of radio waves oscillation. Since radio frequency occurs as fast as the speed of light, it needs no medium of transmission, such as air. RF waves occur naturally as a result of radiation emanating from lightning, sun flares as well as from aging stars in space. Humankind connects with radio waves that are artificially created and oscillate at numerousselected frequencies. Communication of radio frequencies is used in variousbusinessesranging from radar systems, television broadcasting, mobile and computer platform networks, remote monitoring and metering, and remote control among other industries.

Wireless communication plays a significant role in people’s daily lives. Besides communication, wireless technology happens to now consider to be an essentialaspect of our daily activities. Data or information from point A to point B wirelessly is known to be wireless communication. This offersa data exchange without the use of a conductor via radio signals or frequencies. The data transmission from one device to other devices in various locations miles away occurs through well-defined channels.Various types of signals are utilized in communication between devices for wireless data transmission.


Radio Frequency Transmission

Radiofrequency is referred to as a form of electromagnetic transmission utilized in communication via wireless mode. The frequency signals are generated easily with a range from 3 kilohertz to 300 gigahertz. They are utilized in wireless communication for their capability to pass through objects as well as travel over long distances. According to the resonance principle, radio waves are generally used by antennas of suitable size, with wavelengths that range between one millimeter and hundreds of meters. They are adopted in data transmission via modulation, wireless networking, mobile phones as well as television.
Radio waves have the capacity of carrying data by changing a combination of the amplitude, frequency, and wave phase within a frequency band. When Electromagnetic radiation attacheswith a conductor,it embeds itself to the conductor as it moves along it inducingan electric current on the conductor’s surface by igniting the conducting material’s electrons. Antennas are said to use this effect. Radio communication relies on the transmitter power, wavelength, receiver type, quality, size, and the antenna’s height.



Radio waves are directional and broadcast out to space at a speed of 186,000 miles per second. The distance traveled depends on the amplification and frequency of the signal AC transmitted to the antenna. Both the electromagnetic and electric field components are oriented at 90 degrees to each other and 90 degrees towards the direction in which the wave travels.



The radio’s transmitter section is developed by an alternating current going through a conductor, an antenna. The alternating current often changes direction, typically numerous millions or billions of times per second. The energy emanating from such a rapidly alternating current can be transformed into EM radiation. This Electromagnetic radiation is emitted by the electrons flowing as current, in the form of photons. The produced waves, on the other hand, are sinusoidal, but they can be altered by modulation, altering their frequency and amplitude.



Receivers do work in the opposite way to transmitters.The incident radio waves generate a minor alternating current to develop in the receiver’s antenna (the photons are imparting their energy onto the electrons in the wire, hence causing the current. Since EM waves oscillate, an alternating current is produced).This alternating current signal is then directed into an input of a receiver.There are usually other components, such as amplifiers (as the current produced is small), filters (these only allow specific frequencies through), and demodulators (which essentially ‘extract’ the information from the transmitter).It’s important to mention that when you tune a radio, you are choosing a frequency to pick up. To get the clearest signal, you want to tune your radio to the ‘resonant frequency’ of the circuit. This depends on the components being used.



The height of a VHF antenna above ground is essential on account of several factors.

Firstly, for terrestrial communication, we need to recognize that the curvature of the earth. Consequently, as the distance between two stations increases, the earth’s curvature begins to act as an obstruction to a clear line-of-sight (LOS). The interval to the horizon becomes a vital factor. Though the radio horizon is about 30–40% longer than the optical horizon, it is still one of the limiting factors. The greater the height of the antennas, the greater is the distance to the radio horizon and, hence allowing longer distances. This is notwithstanding the fact that the coverage distance may get further enhanced due to various tropospheric phenomena like Super-refraction, ducting due to thermal inversion, etc.

Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, the effect of Fresnel Zone clearance becomes essential. The first Fresnel zone needs to be cleared of any obstructions that may lie in its path to ensure minimum signal attenuation and achieve maximum communication efficiency.

The Fresnel Zone is a barrel-shaped ellipsoidal region between the antennas at both ends. The longer the distance, the greater is the Fresnel Zone radius, and hence it would require greater antenna heights for the Fresnel Zone to clear the earth’s surface. The higher the frequency of operation (shorter wavelength), the lesser the bulge of the Fresnel Zone. That is why UHF might get away with lower antenna heights in comparison to the VHF.The VHF handheld transceivers usually operated at the ground level by operators results in much shorter distance coverage. In contrast, a repeater may be triggered at a far greater distance because it typically has its antenna quite high above the ground, thus allowing a far better Fresnel Zone clearance.



Akaiwa, Y. (2015). Introduction to digital mobile communication. Retrieved from

Gustrau, F. (2012). Rf and microwave engineering: Fundamentals of wireless communications. Retrieved from

Molisch, A. F. (2010). Wireless communications. Retrieved from

Rackley, S. (2007). Wireless networking technology: From principles to successful implementation. Retrieved from

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