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Make sure each annotation is at least 4 sentences long and answers the following questions in one unified paragraph (that does not recopy the questions):

1) What is the main argument of the source?

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2) Who are the author’s and do they have the authority to speak on this subject?

3) What evidence is given to support the argument?

4) How will you use this source in your research paper? In which section of your research paper will you use this source?


Sample Annotated Bibliography

Waite, Linda J., Frances KobrinGoldscheider, and Christina Witsberger.
“Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations
Among Young Adults.” American Sociological Review 51 (1986): 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. As researchers at reputable institutions, the authors have the authority to make the suggestions they do. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. I will use this source in my research paper conclusion in order to better support my thesis on the psychology of single living.

Walter, Linda J.. “Gender Roles in Young Adults.” American Sociological Review

51 (1986): 554-601.


Here is where you would put your annotation.



English 104

May19, 2020

Extreme Sports Athletes, Superheroes, and Your Potential

Origin stories of Sebastien Loeb and a Superhero

Everything starts with determination, a vision, persistence, and achievement of set standards and goals (Brownie et al., 2015). Rally racing as an extreme sport entails driving cars from destination A to destination B along regular roads that are out of bounds for the public. Races are often broken down into shorter phrases that are driven over several days instead of occurring at once, unlike other sports like NASCAR and IndyCar. Sebastien Loeb is a French professional Rally Racer (Chamberlain, 2011). His passion as a Rally Racer began at a tender age. Loeb began to admire sports cars when he was seven years and has he seated at the back of his late father’s car; he saw athletes on television racing from town to town (Brownie et al., 2015). Loeb declared that he would race like the racers on the television one day when he becomes of age. His mother was a bit opposed to Loeb’s idea of rally racing like movie stars on television. His mother tried to convince him that racers in the movies use imaginations, which are not real, but Loeb was determined that he will one day do it. He argued that films might not be real, but he will race like them (Chamberlain, 2011). Someone’s childhood counts a lot in their bid to emerge or become what they want in the future (Brownie et al., 2015). An excellent story, shared from origin to the current position an individual holds, proves that sources are essential when defining success. Every compelling story has a background. The birth of Loeb is predetermined and constitutes the story of a Superhero, who represent extreme athletes and a superhero in this discussion paper.

A superhero that can be compared to Sebastien Loeb is Captain America (Brubaker, 2015). Captain America was created by Marvel Comics as a superhero fictional film structured as patriotic and loyal Supersoldier that fought in the Axis Regimes of WW II (Chamberlain, 2011). The main character, who is a superhero, wears a costume that resembles the American flagship logo and uses an indestructible and durable shield (Destrée, 2012). The actor who is a young man represents human perfection when defeating his enemies during World War II (Brubaker, 2015). He uses his incredible powers to demolish a renegade in the U.S intelligence agency that plans to attack and ambush the Soviet Union to make America the last standing regime or superpower (Mumford, 2015). As such, Captain America represents a superhero that liberates America by influencing various characters and athletes like Sebastien Loeb (Brubaker, 2015). Just like Sebastien Loeb, Captain America make transitions in the film industry by displaying characters of bravery and superhero (Destrée, 2012). Sebastien Loeb and Captain America show an optimal condition of consciousness, a situation where they feel motivated and perform their best. The superhero focuses on the task at hand like engaging in sports and liberating Americans, and everything else disappears, and awareness and action merge, which creates a flow. Captain America emerged as the best American Soldier during World War II, who was granted a serum that changed him into a physically perfect human (Brubaker, 2015).

Since childhood, Loeb has been exposed to extreme danger, forest driving adventures, and situations that tested his fear (Destrée, 2012). Loeb was born into an unconventional life in 1974 in Haguenau, France, and the only child of Ingrid and Guy Loeb, who died in 2005 and 2012, respectively. He competed as a gymnast where he was raised (Oberhoffen-sur-Moder) and became a four-time Alsatian champion. In 1992 Loeb broke off school and started working as an electrician in a local company near his home area. He was the oldest apprentice and already noted for his reckless or daring driving style (Brownie et al., 2015). At this stage, Loeb could count on the understanding of his immediate boss, who was fascinated by Loeb’s driving speed. He quit his job in 1995 at the age of 21 and turned his focus to racing (Brownie et al., 2015). Loeb started entering racing events in 1998 in the French Citroen Saxo series of a trophy and won the title in 1999. Citroen Sport’s team served as Loeb’s mentor as he joins the Junior’s in 2001 in World Rally Championship, emerging as the first champion series by winning 5-6 events. Loeb’s late parents were international dealers Sports cars spare parts across the world and had four children. In his first seven years, Loeb stayed with his parents in France before joining a team or racers in Porsche Supercup (Mumford, 2015).  Loeb, together with his sisters, returned to a local town in France. Even after he joined rally racing sport, his family kept, and Loeb found himself in a succession of schools. Being a new kid in different schools, Loeb was unable to make friends and face diverse bullying (Destrée, 2012). The coarse experiences made Loeb develop feelings of restlessness and isolation. He ended up diverting his skills by imitating top rally racers, including sports car technology and racing techniques. Loeb’s interaction with fearsome racing events made him develop a heart of daring the impossible. He is fond of many sports cars such as Jaguar, Porsche, Audi, Ferrari, BMW, and Lamborghini (Naess, 2014). Still, he is mostly interested in Ferrari because his parents were great dealers of Ferrari spare parts across the world. Loeb ventured into rally racing at the age of 17 and soon started racing using Ferrari because it fascinated him, and he was profoundly frightened by its speed and horsepower (Destrée, 2012). When Loeb emerged as the most successful driver in the World Rally Champions history, he was watching television by then. The observation triggered his feelings and made him vow to follow the same route he used in winning the championship until he achieves his final dream of becoming a professional Rally Racer (Brownie et al., 2015).  In conclusion, it is undeniable that both the athlete and Captain America turned to the-engrossing experiences of flow in coping with traumatic early childhood in a way that assisted them to excel and achieve their dream (Naess, 2014).

Sebastien Loeb and superhero’s (Captain America) connection to the Wiser World

A superhero like Captain America is a good stock character that can be compared and contrasted with Sebastien Loeb. Captain America helped the world to become a better place, and he was dedicated to protecting the public. Perceptions about extreme sports athletes like Sebastien Loeb being detached from physical nature and risk-taking to achieving the desired dream through comparison of Captain America’s characters form the main discussion for this paper (Brubaker, 2015). Extreme athletes are the most risk-takers, sensation-seeking people lack connection or relationship with the natural world. Their life experiences create behavioral and motivational benefits that trigger the emotional experiences of the wider world, constituting compelling components of the overall sporting experiences. Sebastien Loeb cultivated the urge of connections to the broader world like Captain America. The character of approaching danger is integral to both the Sebastien Loeb and Captain America (Brubaker, 2015). This part attempts to explain the relationship between Captain America and Sebastien Loeb about their early childhood experiences, challenges of the outdoors activities, including their emotional reactions to nature, and coping mechanism. Captain America and Sebastien Loeb inherently risky behaviors have psychological advantages ranging from triggering positive emotions, being resilient, and developing life coping mechanisms or skills that cultivate strong affinities to and connecting to the wider world.

During his early childhood experiences, Sebastien Loeb was much more energetic and adventurous than the average human. Loeb was withdrawn and isolated as a tender age, and much of his time, he spends observing rally racers from a video on a great distance (Rogers, 2014). He slowly opened up, but undoubtedly understanding and being recognized by upcoming rally racers clubs and becoming connected with them. On the other hand, Captain America had a strong sense of autonomy. He made his own choices by fostering depths in other characters’ relationships (Rogers, 2014). He felt grounded in his body at a tender age, which made him easier to open to the feelings of liberating Americans during World War II (De Haven, 2010). For instance, when a superhero takes care of their needs, there is a natural receptivity to the needs of others. Sebastien Loeb also showed a sense of autonomy, which enabled intimacy in building and nurturing close relationships with extreme Rally Racers during his time that promoted a confidant of independence. In a positive cycle, privacy and autonomy feed each other, and together they make a person more resilient (Rogers, 2014). Likewise, challenges of the outdoors entail unique experiences that possess only a single character like determination, which makes both the character’ super.’ As a child, Loeb was always excited by the super being and dream of one day being like them (Naess, 2014). As an adult, the super abilities stimulate the childhood fantasies that make us suspend realities for brief periods. Loeb possesses superior intelligence, high quality training, and modern life experiences on Rally Racing technology that money cannot buy. Loeb’s goal is to drive faster, with more precision and more agility. Likewise, every generation wondered how Captain America could achieve more as human beings can. In the same way that Loeb broke the world record in winning the first World Racing Championship, modern rally athletes may be on the verge of achieving the elusive racing skills (Naess, 2014). While superhero imaginations may wonder at the potential for the future, and it has to be understood that a range of physical and physiological regulators, including racing techniques running economy and advanced technologies, will limit the ultimate potentials of human performance (Rogers, 2014). However, Loeb challenges the limits by altering what the body is capable of attaining.

Consequently, Captain America’s emotional response to nature makes him handle extreme competitive pressure as a first Marvel Comic character. A competitive and challenging Rally Racing environment allowed Loeb to develop strategic understanding, resilience, and mental toughness, all concepts that are essential for real successes and categorize them as superhuman individuals and role models in the society (Peterson, 2017). For Captain America, courage and genius level of intelligence were the unique characteristics that enable him to be a master of liberation during World War II. Personal knowledge is a fundamental factor in enhancing resilience between the two characters. While the average sportsman may be able to increase their reaction time, speed, mental strength, it makes make them closer form the development of real-life superheroes like Captain America (Dittmer, 2012). However, emerging as a real-life superhero is not easy, and athletes often consider the effort and risks that come with it. Loeb took the cause that he wanted to fight for, like becoming an iconic rally racer (Mouroutsou, 2011). Just like Captain America fought for a particular purpose of liberation, and he cared about liberating Americans from World War II. The light step is a hero that assists individuals with everyday challenges like car technology. Real superheroes like Captain America also created a costume and name. He used authentic protective materials and created rough designs for his suit, which represents victory (Peterson, 2017). In conclusion, Captain America’s imaginative experience inspires other characters to get active and develop skills like their favorite character (De Haven, 2010). Captain America’s physical attributes, such as running, jumping, bravery, and basic gymnastic, are comparable to Loeb’s physical characteristics. Running in the opening of the movie Sam Wilson (Falcon) and Steve Rogers are each doing laps around the adventurous park. Of course, Rogers’ a little faster, which frustrates Sam a bit, but it also inspires him to try a little harder (Peterson, 2017). The same applies to a rally racing environment that challenges racer to race against each other. It is a great exercise that develops motor coordination in the athlete’s legs.

The Dark Side of Flow for Sebastien Loeb and Superhero (Captain America) 

Allegory of the Cave by Plato is about human perceptions that knowledge is gained through senses compared to opinions, and to possess real knowledge and understanding, individuals must comprehend philosophical reasoning (Kotler, 2014). Plato categorizes people mistakenly confuse sensory experiences for honesty and fact, and those who perceive reality. For instance, in the Cave with three diverse prisoners who were chained in the rocks in the essence that they cannot look at anything except the rock wall in front of them (Kotler, 2014). They have been in the Cave since birth, and behind them, there is a burning fire. People move free outside the Cave along the walkway around the Cave carrying plants, animals, stone, and wood, and the shadows represent people who walk along the sidewalk (Kotler, 2014). The prisoners can see images (shadow) of objects they carry, and they have not viewed any object and believe that the shadow of the objects is real. Plato implies that the prisoners will begin a “game” of guessing the shadows while the escape is represented when a single prisoner escapes from the Cave (Kotler, 2014). When he escaped from the Cave, he is shocked to discover how the world is different and does not believe that what he sees can be real. He starts to understand the new world and notices that the source of life is provided by the sun and enjoys the beauty of nature. As such, the Cave depicts individuals who trust that understanding of knowledge emerges from what other people perceive in the modern world. On the other hand, the shadow shows perceptions of people who say that empirical evidence ensures understanding (Kotler, 2014). The game illustrates how an individual believes that one person represents a master when they possess a practical world’s knowledge (Kotler, 2014).  The escaped prisoner represents philosophers who seek understanding outside the ‘cave’ and senses. The other superhero that can be compared with Sebastien Loeb is Superman.

Superman can be compared with Sebastien Loeb when they have to cope with flow withdrawals (Mouroutsou, 2011). The first supporting reason behind Plato’s Cave connecting the two superheroes is that Superman was chained in the planet Krypton and when moves to planet Earth, everything changes. Superman represents a fictional superhero created by Jerry Siegel. Superman is a superhero that was born on the Krypton planet and given the name Kal-El at birth. At a tender age, his parents sent him to explore Earth in a movement of a small spaceship before the destruction of Krypton by a natural cataclysm. Superman’s ship landed in the countryside of America near a little two known as Smallville. He was later found and adopted by farmers Martha Kent and Jonathan, who named him Clark Kent (Dittmer, 2012). Superman developed diverse superhuman capabilities such as impervious skin and incredible strength. Superman’s parents advised him to apply his abilities for the benefits of humanity by fighting crime as a vigilante. He finds a different life from planet Earth (Mouroutsou, 2011). Plato’s allegory of Cave can be paired with the character of Superman and Sebastien Loeb through the analogy of a new environment represented by the sun and an analogy of divided lines. Sebastien Loeb was also like a prisoner who escape from the Cave and comes to comprehend the realism of Rally racing he uses to see on television (Mouroutsou, 2011). Loeb perceives the correct form of reality instead of manufactured reality representing the same shadow seen by the prisoners in the Cave (Dittmer, 2012). Like a fire burning inside the Cave where prisoners are tied with ropes, human conditions are forever bound to the impression that is received through our senses. The sense of achievement made Sebastien Loeb pursue and achieve his dream of becoming an iconic rally racer. Even if these interpretations are absurd misrepresentations of realities, people can never break free from their human conditions and environmental situations. It is an internal drive that makes superhero achieves more since they cannot free themselves from the phenomenal state in the same way prisoners in the Cave could not escape or free themselves from their chains.

Consequently, the other supporting reason behind Plato’s Cave, connecting the two superheroes, is coping with the flow withdrawal (Chamberlain, 2011). The first step is developing mental toughness through physical characteristics that form the central part of optimal performance. Lack of mental toughness is the biggest enemy for most superheroes and athletes because it can cause them to give up, give less, give in, or win (Mouroutsou, 2011). Sebastien Loeb was born with a mental toughness that he nurtured through his early childhood experience when he was transferred to different rally racing clubs. Coping with diversity and adversity are components of mental toughness (Dittmer, 2012). It requires ironclad approaches to the challenges in the racing sport consistently, focus, and training to enhance mental habit. Likewise, Superman needed to protect his privacy while in America, and he decided to change in a colorful costume and uses the title “Superman” when fighting crimes (Kotler, 2014). The tight-fitting suit inspired the mental toughness of other famous characters like boxers, wrestles, and rally drivers. The word ‘Superman’ was also used in late 1925 to describe men of excellent capabilities, most often politicians and athletes. Lastly, the flow’s dark side by Kotler implies optimal conditions of self-consciousness where a person or a superhero feels best and achieves best (Kotler, 2014). It is a moment of total absorption and rapt attention when a person gets focused or concentrated on the tasks at hand, which makes other things disappear (Chamberlain, 2011). Awareness and action merge and a sense of self vanishes (Kotler, 2014). Therefore, the experience of Sebastien Loeb and Superman is classified to belong to the dark side of flow because of their awareness and action merge. They have a sense of selflessness, timelessness, effortless, intrinsic motivation, including skills balance. All these features highlight alternative paths towards mastery and that urge for self-fulfillment (De Haven, 2010). When people push on the challenge-skill continuously, it means they are going to get scarier and achieve something at the end of it. In conclusion, the flow can make people master their lives and happiness, but it can also drug them very desperate and dark places if they let it.


Work Cited

Brownie, Barbara, and Danny Graydon. The superhero costume: Identity and disguise in fact and             fiction. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015.

Brubaker, Ed. Captain America: Reborn. Vol. 1. Marvel Entertainment, 2015.

Chamberlain, Sean Michael. Extreme sport athletes’ perceptions about sport psychology and use    of mental skills. Diss. 2011.

De Haven, Tom. Our Hero: Superman on Earth. Yale University Press, 2010.

Destrée, Pierre. “Spectacles from Hades. On Plato’s Myths and Allegories in the Republic.” Plato             and Myth. BRILL, 2012. 109-124.

Dittmer, Jason. Captain America and the nationalist superhero: Metaphors, narratives, and           geopolitics. Temple University Press, 2012.

Kotler, Steven. The rise of Superman: Decoding the science of ultimate human performance.         Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014.

Mouroutsou, Georgia. “The allegory of the cave: the necessity of the philosopher’s descent.”         (2011).

Mumford, George. The mindful athlete: Secrets to pure performance. Parallax Press, 2015.

Naess, H. A Sociology of the World Rally Championship: History, Identity, Memories and Place.   Springer, 2014.

Peterson, Valerie V. “Plato’s Allegory of the Cave: literacy and “the good”.” Review of      Communication 17.4 (2017): 273-287.

Rogers, Joel Augustus. From “superman” to man. Wesleyan University Press, 2014.




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