Please read my instructor Comments below: If you mouse-over the red flag you will see my comments. The main areas that I see are you are not using the research to support your statements that are not yours. When you say the research, you must cite the research that states this and that. You want to use the research to define the research methodology and also the research design. In the Theoretical Framework you want to clearly state the theories that you are going to use to support your study. You mentioned Andragogy and I also recommend that you research Heutagogy. Also, you mentioned Self-Actualization where did that come from – Maslows hierarchy of needs which is a theory and model. Remember that people do not care what you have to say until you get your doctorate. That is why studies are always using the research because that is what scholars want to read. Make the changes outlined and then at the end you include all of your references that you use in the entire template.
DISSERTATION PLAN TEMPLATE
Dissertation Chair Name:
Date Began Dissertation Plan:
|For each module in the Dissertation Plan, the text within the box describes the instructions for the module and the specific components to be addressed. Once you have read the instructions for the relevant module and gathered your materials, beginwriting in the section below the box, where it says. “Remove and Begin writing here.” Write in complete sentences and paragraphs, and note that your writing throughout the dissertation plan must be supported by citations from the literature. Include a list of references at the end of each module. Much of the material you develop here, once the dissertation plan is approved, will provide the beginning of your work on Chapter 1. Be sure to use the resources available to you in the Dissertation Experience (DIS 897) course in Canvas AND any additional resources recommended to you by your dissertation chair.|
Module 1: Proposed Dissertation Title and Introduction to the Problem
|Proposed Dissertation Title: Create a proposed title for your study,not to exceed 12 words total.This is a working title, you may modify as needed, as you move through the process.|
Proposed Dissertation Title:
The Effects of Using Tablet PCs on Developmental Mathematics Education in College
|Introduction to the Problem:Describe the specific topic to be studied. The topic must relate in some way to leadership and/or innovation.
The following items should be addressed in this section.
· Introduce the dissertation topic area.
· Describe the social/educational/practical problem of interest and what we know about that problem from the existing research literature. You may also provide evidence of the problem in your proposed setting, such as national or local statistics, assessment data, previous surveys in your setting, etc.
· Tell the reader why the problem is worthy of further investigation/why it is meaningful. Who does the problem impact, why is it important to gather further information about this problem?
· Introduce the specific research problem (gap in the literature) that your study will address.
· Cite experts who agree that further study is needed on this specific research problem.
Introduction to the Problem:
Technology and especially mobile phones and computers, have been integrated into the educational system over recent decades. The approach is that most of the schools are considering the integration of various technological properties to complement the existing education system. The use of devices in the classroom set-up goes a long way in promoting the understanding of instructions for the students and especially relative to subjects like mathematics. The rationale is that the use of gadgets like tablet PCs has an advantageous and disadvantage to developmental mathematics education in college. This study’s approach is to understand the impact of using these technologies in improving performance among the students and instructors in college.
The rationale is that the use of tablet PCs, and other technologies has various advantages that support the effectiveness of performance. This aspect is especially vital based on the impact this approach has on ensuring high-level performance and an in-depth understanding. The use of technology in the classroom setting makes performing easier for the instructor and promotes how effective it is for students to learn. The purpose of the same in the classroom is developed based on its effectiveness of ensuring information is acquired directly, and some resources can be used to provide further information better. Developmental mathematics at the college level is considered too complex and quite engaging and, as such, may need the input of the individuals and their effectiveness.
The understanding is that most of the students are better placed in interpreting developmental mathematics with the assist of technology. This approach is primarily based on the rationale that most of the students are able and skilled to utilize these gadgets. The explanation is that the majority of the student population is involved in useful devices and technologies in the classroom setting. This aspect illustrates the importance of using technology in the promotion and understanding of the instructions provided. The advantages associated with the use is that it promotes direct communication, a live knowledge base, and a personal approach. It is also evident that this approach is cost-effective compared to the traditional method of textbooks.
This study focuses on understanding the impact of the use of technology in developmental mathematics and the role it plays in improving performance. In this connection, the main concern for the current study is identifying how the performance of students is affected by the use of tablets within the classroom and individual studies. The rationale is that the use of tablet PCs promotes a clearer understanding of the subject while enhancing better results. Arguably, there needs to be further research that focuses on the impact of the use of technology in the learning of developmental mathematics. The focus should be directed on having better results from the students as well as improving the teaching practices of the instructors.
Module 2: Annotated Bibliography, ContextandTheoreticalFramework
|Annotated Bibliography: In order to establish an initial research base for your study and to understand what studies have and have not been done in your topic area, you will first complete an annotated bibliography. For the purposes of this module, an annotated bibliography is a list of sources (formatted according to APA style), with each source followed by a summary anda description of how the source informs the development of your dissertation. When selecting the studies to include and writing your summaries, keep in mind that the goals of completing this annotated bibliography are for you to: a) build your skills in reviewing, summarizing and analyzing research articles; b) build an understanding of the current state of the research literature on your topic; and c) provide the reader with a more thorough understanding of the research problem and the research base upon which your study will be built.
The following steps should be followed in this section.
· Choose 6 of the most recent (preferably published within the last 5 years) and relevant empirical studies on your topic, published in peer-reviewed academic journals. For guidance on locating peer-reviewed academic journals, consult with the STU librarians.(https://www.stu.edu/Portals/library/Services/docs/LibraryGuideforDistanceStudents.pdf). For many database searches, you can specify that you want results from peer-reviewed journals only, and you can also specify a timeframe (e.g., within the last 5 years).
· For each entry in the annotated bibliography, provide the reference for the source, formatted according to APA style.
· Underneath that, write a summary of the article (approximately one paragraph), making sure to include the following information:
o Purpose of the study
o Description of the participants in the study
o Methodological approach that was used (quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods)
o Data collection methods (e.g., survey, interview…)
o Primary findings or results of the study
o If a clear theoretical/conceptual framework is articulated in the article, you should also identify that.
· Write one or more concluding sentences, identifying how the study relates to or informs your proposed study.
· This annotated bibliography will provide a starting point for the Background section of Chapter 1 of the dissertation.
· For further details and examples, consult the following resources:
American Psychological Association (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th
ed.). American Psychological Association. (Includes some general instructions and a sample entry)
Pape, S. J., & Prosser, S. K. (2018). Barriers to technology implementation in community college mathematics classroom. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 620-636.
The article is an ethnographic study that evaluates the barriers associated with technology implementation from community college instructors. The rationale is that community college students have a hard time passing college-level mathematics courses. This factor has resulted in the need for the integration of technology with an example of real-time assessments to enhance the student’s ability. However, specific barriers hinder the implementation of these technology systems in the colleges. One of the factors is that colleges struggle with the Application of these technologies to support student learning. Other factors that were considered barriers to this implementation included beliefs of mathematics that, to some extent, affected connectivity of the systems. There was also a lack of time for planning of the activities to be undertaken in the classroom setting, the inadequacy of technical support, and the rationale of misalignment between activities and state-mandated curriculum. The article, as such, describes various factors that influence the implementation of successful technology-based tools to assist mathematics instructors. This article, as such, is a reliable resource for the discussion of reliable tools to support mathematics courses in colleges.
Childers, A. B., & Lu, L. (2017). Computer-based mastery learning in Developmental Mathematics Classrooms. Journal of Developmental Education, 1-8.
The article is a study that focuses on the redesigning of mastery learning in computer-based developmental mathematics classrooms. The articles evaluate how successful the redesign strategy for developmental mathematics course is mainly in regards to improving performance. The data collected was gathered and analyzed statistically with regards to the completion rates, success in the program completion, and length of completion time in the program. The data also analyzes information in regards to contributing factors of the student’s success in the program. The research focuses on the different factors that support the implementation of the computer-based redesign and its impact on various students, their completion time, and the duration of completion. However, the findings from the research indicate that the restructuring may not lead to improved results from student’s outcomes and the success of the courses. The article, as such, is a reliable resource that provides information on the topic of computer-based developmental mathematics in classrooms.
Ingram, N., Williamson-Leadley, S., & Pratt, K. (2015). Showing and telling: using tablet technology to engage students in mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia, 123-147.
The article is a report of a qualitative study into the use of a show and tells tablet technology applicable in a mathematics classroom. The article describes the use of the show and explains Application in detail as it evaluates its effectiveness in the organization. A Show and Tell Application allows the users to capture the voice and text or to write in real-time and can be revised later by the student. The study compared the use of the Show and Tell technology against a framework of student engagement. Findings from the study indicated that the instructors perceived both the level and quality of student engagement in the use of the Application to be high. Through the Application, the instructors were able to implement sufficient teaching criteria that worked among the students. The purpose of the show and tell recording highlighted the students’ thinking abilities, which could be evaluated by their instructors, fellow students, and themselves. The article provides information on various technological tools that could be used to improve mathematics performance in colleges.
Fabian, K., Topping, K. J., & Barron, I. G. (2018). Using mobile technologies for mathematics: effects on students’ attitudes and achievement. Education Technology Research Development, 1119-1139.
The article is a study that provides information on the ubiquity of utilizing mobile devices together with the potential of bridging classroom learning in the real world. This approach has added a new aspect to the contextualizing of mathematics learning. The study is a quasi-experimental design adopted over a given period to understand supported and collaborative learning activities spanning over a given period. The students’ attitudes are assessed by a mathematics attitude inventory that found no significant changes in the groups. A t-test was implemented to show the significant differences that the experimental group had gained over the control group. The findings from the research indicate that the use of mobile phones improves the performance of the students. This aspect is primarily based on the student’s attitudes towards mathematics and how it impacts their performance. The articles analyze the impact of mobile technology on influencing better results among the students.
Radović, S., Marić, M., & Passey, D. (2019). Technology enhancing mathematics learning behaviors: Shifting learning goals from producing the right answer to understanding how to address current and future mathematical challenges. Educational Information Technology, 103-126.
This article is a report on how an information and communication technology system can support more significant connections across and outcomes from learning practices conducted in schools and at home. The paper provides a rationale for the challenges and consequences of creating software to support students’ mathematical thinking behaviors. The article describes the effects and contributions of well-based home and school-linked practice. The study utilized interviews and surveys to collect data from the students and their instructors. The findings of the research highlighted the efficacy of the system while indicating the benefits arising from the students and teachers from their features. The study results suggested that the tool enabled teachers and students to develop abilities and knowledge in the short-term. The research revealed the specific features of the software and support ICT integration in the classroom. The learning process offers new thinking about mathematical learning and the effectiveness of the tool.
Hassan, M., & Geys, B. (2016). Expectations, realizations, and approval of tablet computers in an educational setting. J Education Change, 171-190.
The article evaluates the introduction of technologies in classrooms that is thought to offer great potential in advancing the learning of mathematics. The report investigates the relationship between expectations and post-implementation evaluation of new technology in the educational setting. The article offers its focus on expectations that undermine the approach ratings of new technologies in the classroom. The study utilizes students from both primary and secondary schools with a respondent population of 750 students. The findings offered indicated an increased performance level of the students who used tablets compared to those that did not. This aspect depicts the influence of various elements of the classroom, especially in the study of mathematics. The article promotes the rationale of the understanding of technological tools that can impact change and its effect on the students’ performance. The article is, therefore, a reliable resource that can be used to implement change in the students’ performance, especially in the mathematics subject.
|Context:Describe the context for your study–the place or setting in which you will collect your data. The context or setting for the study refers to the physical location of the research and the natural or artificial (simulated) properties of that setting. In some research these properties are called “experimental conditions” or “study environment.”|
The purpose of this qualitative research is the evaluation of the achievement and success of students that use tablets in developmental mathematics education in comparison to those that do not incorporate such technologies (Korstjens and Moser, 2017). This research entails identification and analysis reviewing the implementation of tablet initiatives for mathematics education across the world, focusing on specific case studies. While one research cannot provide substantial evidence, there is a need for in-depth syntheses that provide vast coverage of the population to be studied. In this connection, the systematic review based on specific scientific methodologies will be incorporated into this study.
The information acquired from existing research is that the use of digitized gadgets in the study of developmental mathematics improves performance. Some aspects can be considered in the effective implementation and approach of using such tools in mathematics study. The procedure is that most of the instructors utilize gadgets like tablet PCs to promote the effectiveness and understanding of the approach from the performance. Most of the colleges that use the devices have reported more positive results and performance from the students. The rationale is that mathematics can be a complicated subject that may need the student’s focus and effectiveness to comprehend. The use of technology-based gadgets ensures an understanding of the question. The theoretical framework applied in this study is understanding the impact of technology-based devices in achieving results.
Korstjens, I., & Moser, A. (2017). Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 2: Context, research questions and designs.
|Theoretical Framework: The purpose of the theoretical or conceptual framework is to provide an overarching structure for the dissertation and to tie the different pieces of the dissertation together. As the researcher, you should approach the proposed research from a theory or set of theories that provide the backdrop for the work (researchers do not create theory; they use established theory in which to embed their work). This section should describe how this study will be framed based on existing theories and/or conceptual models.
The following items should be addressed in this section.
· What are the theory/theories or conceptual models (with citations from the original authors) that will provide the framework for your study?
· Explain how the framework either supports the proposed study or provides a theoretical context for developing the research problem.
· Be sure that the theoretical framework is appropriate for the topic.
· Be sure that the theoretical foundation is strong and can provide a structure to tie together all components of the study.
· Provide at least 2 annotations of sources (journal articles, books, or book chapters) related to your theoretical/conceptual framework. Be sure these sources are original works by the authors who developed the theories or models.Include:
o The APA-formatted reference
o A brief description of the source
o A summary of important theoretical/conceptual tenets that are explained within the source
o A statement regarding how the source informs your study
This research seeks to find out the impact of tablets in mathematics education based on various factors, including inspiration, intelligence, transformation, and communication. Adult learning theories are categorized based on several elements.
Instrumental theories are focused on the personal experience of an individual that is associated with cognitive and behavioral theories. A stimulus in the environment would result in changes in certain behaviors. For instance, the incorporation of tablets in a mathematical class could invoke motivation among the students. In this connection, the application of such a theory motivates learning that leads to better outcomes. Also, cognitive theories of learning are based on the psychological and mental processes of the brain. Such a theory is associated with the perception of the student and whether they can process certain information. Hence, tablets have an impact on this aspect of learning among students and tutors.
Experiential-based learning influences student’s college education by ensuring the tutors create, facilitate access to various information and organize the experiences of the learners to allow for better understanding. The concept identified in this paragraph is criticized due to its focus on the establishment of personal knowledge while limiting the social aspect. Nonetheless, humanistic theories also promote individual advancement and are centered on the learner. The intention is to achieve self-actualization and internal motivation. In this connection, andragogy elaborates on the motivation of the students to learn. The use of tablets allows for self-directed education, where adults can plan, undertake, and evaluate their knowledge acquisition. Such is the goal of college education that emphasizes autonomy and personal learning.
Module 3: Statement of theProblem
|Statement of the Problem:This section clearly states the research problem to be addressed, the population affected, and how the study will contribute to addressing the problem/filling the gap in the literature. A well-written problem statement also clearly communicates the significance, magnitude, and importance of the problem. The problem statement will clarify, outline, limit, and bring into being a distinct image the problem to be investigated. The most effective problem statements are (a) expressed simply, (b) to the point, and (c) clear in stating the nature of the problem.
The following informationneeds to be included in this section.
· State theproblem proposed for research by presenting a clear declarative statement that begins with the words, “It is not known” OR “There is a gap in the literature regarding” followed by “how . . . ” (qualitative) OR “to what extent . . .” (quantitative). Other examples include, “It is not known …” “Absent from the literature is …” “While the literature indicates …, it is not known in(school/district/organization/community) if…” and “It is not known how or to what extent …”
· Identify the general population affected by the problem.
· Identify theneed for the study and why it is of concern.
· Clearly describe the magnitude and importance of the problem.
· Suggest how the study may contribute to solving the problem.
· Ensure your research problem passes the ROC test, meaning your problem is Researchable, Original, and Contributory!
The problem statement, the purpose statement, and primary or central research question will vary only slightly in their wording, but the essence of each should be identical and uniform for all three sections. The problem statement will lead to the purpose statement, which in turn will lead to the primary or central research question.
Statement of the Problem:
There is a gap in the literature reviewed in this study concerning the effectiveness of the use of tablet PCs and how impactful they are. Most of the college students have been identified as lacking the skills to solve mathematical problems, which can be considered complex for those without background information. The rationale is that the study is based on understanding the impact that these gadgets, such as tablets PCs, have on improving performance. The benefit of online devices is that they act as complementary tools that promote students and instructors. The study offers information on the benefits and challenges of using these resources in acquiring results that affect the mode of research and teaching. The information provided can be used in the implementation of new strategies for colleges in teaching mathematics.
The first year of student is vital to the retention and persistence in mathematics since the majority of majors on the subject occur at the time. The overall performance of a student in mathematics is based on the training approaches incorporated during their first year of enrollment in college. Due to low achievements after obtaining exam and assignment results, students are often demoralized and prefer to focus on a different major that does not include mathematics. Such students lack the self-confidence to achieve higher points in their exams. Technologies, including computers, have been used in developmental mathematics courses for several decades. Notwithstanding, the tablet approach is a new technology. Tablets allow instructors and students to have better approaches for identifying solutions to problems while instilling confidence in the student.
Module 4: Purpose of the Study
|Purpose of the Study:This section provides an expansion of the problem statement into how the study will be accomplished. It also explains how the proposed study will contribute to the field. Included in this statement are the research design, population/setting, variables (quantitative) or phenomena (qualitative) to be studied, and geographic location. Further, the section clearly defines the dependent and independent variables and whether variables and groups will be examined in relation or comparison to one another (for quantitative studies). For qualitative studies, this section clarifies the nature of the phenomena to be explored.
Begin this section with the words, “The purpose of the proposed study is to . . . in order to . . .”.
(a) end with an “in order to”conclusion so that your reader understands why the research is being proposed, or
(b) have a second sentence explaining why the research is being proposed (what goal will the studyaccomplish?)
Example:Þ The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the attitudes, practices, and barriers of parental involvement as perceived by middle school teachers and parents in a rural school district in northeast Florida.
The following information should be included in this section.
· Begin with a declarative statement, “The purpose of this study is….” that identifies the research methodology, population/setting, variables to be studied, and geographic location in context.
· Identify the research method as qualitative or quantitative.
· Describe the target population and geographic location for the study.
· For quantitative studies, define the variables, relationship of variables, or comparison of groups. For qualitative studies, describe the nature of the phenomena to be explored.
· Explain why this study is necessary to address the research problem or to advance the research focus.
· Specify how the results of the study can contribute to this field.
Purpose of the Study:
The purpose of the proposed qualitative study is to evaluate the impact of utilizing tablets PCs in developmental learning mathematics among college students and instructors in colleges in the United States. The variables associated with the study are the students and instructors who utilize traditional education methodology and the new technology-supported approaches to achieve effective results. The research is vital in promoting the increased positive performance of the students and instructors in attaining the practical consequences of the technology used. This approach can be used to reduce poor performance by students taking developmental mathematics courses. The study results will be used to influence the implementation of resources and policies supporting technology use in classrooms.
Module 5: Research Questions
|Research Questions:In this section you will narrow the focus of the study by stating your proposed research questions. The questions are derived from the research problem and the purpose of the study. Within the general purpose of the study, what are the specific questions the research will attempt to answer?
If your study is qualitative, state the research question(s) the study will answer, and be specific about the phenomena to be studied. Qualitative studies will typically have one overarching or central research question with three or more sub-questions. Develop a central research question that mirrors the purpose of the study but is phrased as a question rather than a statement. Follow the central research question with any additional or corollary research questions.
If your study is quantitative, state the research questions the study will answer, identify the variables, and state the alternative and null hypotheses (predictive statements) for any testable research questions, using the format appropriate for the specific design. Quantitative studies will typically have three or four research questions and associated hypotheses. Non-testable research questions will not have hypotheses.
The following specific items should be included in this section.
· For qualitative designs, state the research question(s) the study will answer and describe the phenomena to be studied.
· For quantitative designs, state the research questions the study will answer, identify the variables, and state the hypotheses using the format appropriate for the specific design.
· Make sure the research questions are aligned with the stated research problem and purpose of the study.
· Make sure your research questions are specific, measurable, and feasible to answer with the data you plan to collect.
RQ1: How effective is the use of tablet PCs in the study of developmental mathematics among college students?
RQ2: How do the implementation of internet and technology-assisted devices improve performance for both students and instructors?
RQ3: Does the use of tablets and PCs in the study of developmental studies affect attitudes and approaches to understanding the subject?
The focus of the study is on understanding the effectiveness of the use of tablet PCs in promoting positive performance among the students and instructors. This question will guide the researcher in understanding the various approaches undertaken to ensure results are achieved. The benefit of utilizing these research questions is that the problem at hand will be carefully analyzed and all aspects associated with the same addressed. This aspect will promote the understanding of the information acquired and the results achieved by the researcher.
Module 6:Nature of the Study
|Nature of the Study:This section describes the general methodological approach (quantitative/qualitative methods) and specific research design (e.g., case study, phenomenological, cross-sectional survey) that will be used to answer the research questions, as well as why this approach was selected. Here, you must discuss why both the general approach and the specific selected design are the best to address the problem statement, purpose, and research questions as compared to other designs. This section also contains a description of the research sample being studied, as well as, the process that will be used to collect the data. Basically, this section provides a preview of Chapter 3 of the dissertation and succinctly conveys the research approach that will be used to answer the research questions and/or test the hypotheses.
The following specific items should be included in this section.
o The APA-formatted reference
o A brief description of the source
o A summary of important aspects of the design that are explained within the source
o A statement regarding how the source informs your study
Nature of the Study:
The most reliable research method used in this study is that of qualitative research and uses case studies. The technique is useful in acquiring broad information on tablet PCs in the teaching of developmental mathematics in colleges. The approach relies on existing knowledge that promotes understanding of the information provided and its effectiveness in delivering the most compelling theoretical framework. This method is reliable, based on the fact that the information provided in real-time and secure by the researcher. The target population for the research would be students in colleges that are studying developmental mathematics and their effectiveness in acquiring positive outcomes from the approach. The study implements questionnaires for the collection of data from focus groups.
Harrison, H., Birks, M., Franklin, R., & Mills, J. (2017, January). Case study research: Foundations and methodological orientations. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 18, No. 1).
The article provides information on the effective use and implementation of the case study method of research. This approach encourages the effective achievement of results associated with evaluating a specific group and their behavior. The resource utilizes other qualitative research methods such as questionnaires and surveys to acquire results on the same. The importance of the use of this approach is that it would impact on the results achieved in the study. Based on the type of results expected, the methods are effective in acquiring information on a specific group.
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