|I am working on a paer and it has to be divided into sections this section will be added to the paper and I can send what I have already completed if that helps.
Policy Analysis—Section 2: Historical Review-2pages
School to Prison Pipeline
I chose to write on the “School to Prison Pipeline” because itis disheartening to me. As a single mother who has raised three black males, it is alarming to realize that my son and every black child that looks like them aretargeted explicitly with punitive approaches to their behaviors. These approaches introduce them to the juvenile criminal system with the future goal of prison. A system that put into place that would deter generations of black children from reaching their full potential. The American Civil Liberties defines this system as “a nationwide system of public safety policies that removes students fromthe school and into the criminal justice system (Haglage, 2017).
Facts and Statistics
According to research done by David Ramey, Nationwide, 40% of students expelled from U.S schools each year are black or Latino. 70% of students involved in school arrest or that referred to law enforcement are black or Latino. 95% of out of school suspensions are for non-violent misbehavior(Haglage, 2017). The more profound “ implications of Ramey’s results are troubling. Misbehavior from black students is a crime that warrants punishment; misbehavior from whites is a malady that needs medicine”.(Haglage, 2017)
Some of the current perceptions regarding the School to Prison Pipeline are racial and gender biases and the Zero Tolerance Policies. A vast majority of assumption is that becausechildren and youth of color commit more crimes,they are disciplined and or arrested.Children of color do not misbehave more regularly; however, they receive a harsher punishment or consequences for similar or lesser offenses that white children and youth. This bias can cloud the perception and judgment of adult decision-makers that often respond to the same behavior but have different consequences based on the child’s race and gender. These decision-makers include; teachers, principals, school resource officers, police, lawyers, judges, and others responsible for making decisions about the school discipline, arrests, and sentencing (United Methodist Women, n.d.).
Zero tolerance policies include a collection of less severe offenses that result in mandated suspensions, expulsions, and arrests for minor misbehavior. Asa result of the zero-tolerance system, many schools,employ school resource officers or police stationed inside schools (United Methodist Women, n.d.).
“The school-to-prison pipeline is a direct descendant of former President Richard Nixon’s Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act, reauthorized by President Ronald Regan in 1986 as the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, which included the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act. President Bill Clinton reauthorized this Act as the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1994, which tied federal school funding to student behavior reporting and mandated zero-tolerance policies, this effectively diverted the educator’s attention away from teaching and learning toward scrutinizing student behavior and incentivized over-disciplining students and over-reporting behavioral infractions to demonstrate a need for additional funds. Zero tolerance policies mandated harsh punishments for students’ behavioral infractions without consideration for the surrounding circumstances. They mandated schools to report specific behavior to the criminal justice or juvenile delinquency system. These zero-tolerance policies then converged with President George W. Bush’s No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which centered schooling on accountability and standardized testing and incentivized pushing low-scoring students off school rosters. Together, these policies cemented the school-to-prison pipeline”(Hermosua, 2016).
I will continue to research The American Bar Association policy with recommendations on how to reverse the School to Prison Pipeline.Social Workers principle that challenges social injustice states that,
“Social workers pursue social change, particularly with and on behalf of vulnerable and oppressed individuals and groups of people. Social workers’ social change efforts are focused primarily on issues of poverty, unemployment, discrimination, and other forms of social injustice. These activities seek to promote sensitivity to and knowledge about oppression and cultural and ethnic diversity. Social workers strive to ensure access to needed information, services, and resources; equality of opportunity; and meaningful participation in decision making for all people”(NASW, 2017).
Haglage, A. (2017, April 14). The Daily Beast. Retrieved from https://www.thedailybeast.com/new-school-study-shows-black-kids-get-cops-white-kids-get-docs
Hermosua, L. (2016, April 25). UT News. Retrieved from https://news.utexas.edu/2016/04/25/school-to-prison-pipeline-caused-by-war-on-drugs-policy/
NASW. (2017). National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English
United Methodist Women. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.unitedmethodistwomen.org/racial-justice/school-to-prison-pipeline
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