Describe at least three short-term, measurable goals, and one long-term, measurable goal using the data collected in the study to design an ABA change format for Rachel.

Data Collection

Most new educators are nervous about the classroom management aspect of teaching. They are nervous that students won’t listen, or that a particular student has recurring behavior problems.

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Prudence is a seventh grade student in the general education class at her local middle school. She is very friendly and loves to help the teacher in any way she can including running errands, cleaning the boards, and tutoring other students. She is currently functioning at a second grade level in reading comprehension; therefore, her IEP team recommends one hour each week of pull-out resource reading assistance. You notice that Prudence never finishes her class work because she always has “something” to do, such as sharpening her pencil, getting a drink of water, or throwing something away; when she leaves her seat she “accidently” bumps into other students’ chairs, angering them. When they turn around to say something to her, she gets very defensive and shouts, “I didn’t do anything! Why are you always blaming me?!”

Which behavior should be the target to change, and why? What is the best means for collecting data on this behavior? Which method would not be effective, and why? How can you use an ABA chart for this student? You must cite at least one additional scholarly source in your post.

More Inform

Ashford 4: – Week 3 (Feb 28 – Mar 07)

 

Overview

Assignment 

 

Due Date 

 

Format 

 

Grading Percent 

 

Data Collection Day 3
(1st post)
Discussion 3
Single-Subject Design Day 7 Assignment 10

Note: The online classroom is designed to time students out after 90 minutes of inactivity. Because of this, we strongly suggest that you compose your work in a word processing program and copy and paste it into the discussion post when you are ready to submit it.

 


Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  1. Explain how to implement an antecedent, behavior, or consequences chart to identify the function of a target behavior with the intention of modification.
  2. Compare data collection methods for assessing student behavior.
  3. Examine how to implement a single-subject design with the intention of modifying a student’s target behavior.

Introduction

Welcome to Week Three! This week reviews various data collecting methods including interval, frequency, and duration. Each method serves a unique purpose, depending on the type of behavior you are observing. Frequency recording is done when a behavior is repeated often throughout the class period and you are looking to change the number of times it happens. Duration recording is how long a behavior, such as tantruming or a head on the desks, occurs. This method will allow you to shorten the length of time an undesirable behavior lasts. Interval recording is the time lapse between displays of a behavior such as how long a student sits without calling out; this method is used to determine “percent of observations that the behavior occurred” (McIntyre, para 4). Using the collected data gives you a starting point to create a single-subject design plan that modifies the target behavior.


Required Resources

Required Text

  1. Zirpoli, T. J. (2016). Behavior Management: Positive Applications for Teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson.
    1. Chapter 6: Data Collection Techniques
      • The purpose of this chapter is to provide teachers with an understanding of the importance of direct behavioral observation, the measurement of behavior, and the documentation of these observations and measurements.
    2. Chapter 7: Single-Subject Designs
      • Single-subject designs are presented in this chapter. Several different designs are outlined and discussed. These designs include: A-B; A-B-A; A-B-A-B; alternating treatments; changing criterion; and multiple baseline. Three types of multiple baseline designs (across subjects, across behaviors, and across settings), as well as their relative strengths and weaknesses, are also discussed.

Articles

  1. Bicard, S. C. & Bicard, D. F. (n.d.). Measuring behavior. The Iris Center. Retrieved from http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/case_studies/IC…
      • This document, created by The Iris Center, explains what measureable, observable goals are and how to use them when modifying a target behavior.
  2. Kelly, A. N. (2012). Antecedents – behavior – consequences. Applied Behavior Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.behaviorbabe.com/abcsofaba.htm
      • This article explains how to collect data using an ABC (Antecedent/ Behavior/ Consequence) chart to determine the purpose or cause of a behavior.
  3. McIntyre, T. (n.d.). Behavioral recording. Retrieved from http://www.behavioradvisor.com/BehRecord.html
      • This article outlines three different types of observation behavioral recording (frequency, duration, and interval) that assist in determining the purpose of a target behavior.
  4. Wasson, J. B. (n.d.). Single-subject design. Retrieved from http://www.practicalpress.net/updatenov05/SingleSu…
      • This case study explores single-subject designs created to determine the effectiveness of color transparencies on students with reading disabilities.

Multimedia

  1. morgankenneth12. (2011, May 28). ABAB withdrawal designs [Video file]. Retrieved from
      • This video reviews how to read single-subject data collection to determine trends of success.
  2. Williams, A. L. (n.d.). Single-subject designs [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from faculty.etsu.edu/williaml/Single-Subject%20Designs.ppt
      • This PowerPoint presentation explains the purpose of a single-subject design, how it is used, and how to analyze the data for trends.

Recommended Resource

Multimedia

  1. McIntyre, T. (n.d.). Behavioral recording [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from http://www.behavioradvisor.com/BehRecord.html
      • This PowerPoint presentation is a supplement to the “Behavioral Recording” webpage created by Tom McIntyre.

Discussion
To participate in the following discussion, go to this week’s Discussion link in the left navigation.

  1. Data CollectionMost new educators are nervous about the classroom management aspect of teaching. They are nervous when students won’t listen, or when a particular student has recurring behavior problems.Prudence is a seventh grade student in the general education class at her local middle school. She is very friendly and loves to help the teacher in any way she can including running errands, cleaning the boards, and tutoring other students. She is currently functioning at a second grade level in reading comprehension; therefore, her IEP team recommends one hour each week of pull-out resource reading assistance. You notice that Prudence never finishes her class work because she always has “something” to do, such as sharpening her pencil, getting a drink of water, or throwing something away; when she leaves her seat she “accidently” bumps into other students’ chairs, angering them. When they turn around to say something to her, she gets very defensive and shouts, “I didn’t do anything! Why are you always blaming me?!”

    Which behavior should be the target to change, and why? What is the best means for collecting data on this behavior? Which method would not be effective, and why? How can you use an ABA chart for this student? You must cite at least one additional scholarly source in your post.

    Guided Response: Read and respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Explain how you would collaborate with other school faculty and staff in the data collection and behavior modification plans suggested by your classmates. Use your research to back up your decisions. Include at least two additional suggestions based on your own findings and personal experience.
    Carefully review the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate this Discussion Thread.


Assignment
To complete the following assignment, go to this week’s Assignment link in the left navigation.

  1. Single-Subject Design

The purpose of single-subject designs is to allow teachers to demonstrate experimental control and intervention effects with a single child or a small group of children. Thus, these designs are ideal for classroom teachers, parents, and others who want to demonstrate the effectiveness of their behavior reduction strategies.

Review the article “Single-Subject Design” and the PowerPoint presentation “Single-Subject Designs.” Also view the video ABAB Withdrawal Designs, on how to read the collected data. Then, read the case study Level C, Case 2 from “Measuring Behavior.”

In your paper:

  • State the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV) from the case study Level C, Case 2.
  • State the behavior that needs to be changed or treated. The behavior must be specified as clearly as possible in order for it to be reliably measured.
  • Explain how you can create a single-subject design for this student. Use key terms as part of your explanation.
  • Discuss how to read data collection charts to determine if your design is effectively managing the targeted behavior.
  • Describe at least three short-term, measurable goals, and one long-term, measurable goal using the data collected in the study to design an ABA change format for Rachel.

You must support your thoughts with at least one scholarly source in addition to the text and the sources provided. Your paper should two to three pages, excluding the title and reference pages, and formatted according to APA guidelines, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

2 days ago

*Special thanks to Dr. Dawson for sharing her original guidance in this document.

Welcome to Week 3!!

Thus far you have learned how behavior is learned, maintained, or altered, and how a child’s behavior is deeply influenced by personal culture and environment. Week 3 is all about learning how to become a data detective in order to help students learn more positive behaviors! Changing behavior is a process that begins with collecting data. This week you will learn all aspects of how to assess and measure behavior and how to graph data. In addition, you will review single-subject designs methods that can be used in the classroom to alter a student’s behavior.

2 days ago

Week 3 Learning Outcomes

  1. Explain how to implement an antecedent, behavior, or consequences chart to identify the function of a target behavior with the intention of modification.
  2. Compare data collection methods for assessing student behavior.
  3. Examine how to implement a single-subject design with the intention of modifying a student’s target behavior.

Week 3 Tasks

  1. Read from your textbook, Behavior management: Positive applications for teachers.
    • Chapter 6: Data Collection Techniques
    • Chapter 7: Single-Subject Designs
  2. Read the articles and visit the websites listed in this week’s required resources.
  3. Read the key notes and additional tips & hints throughout this guidance.
  4. Post and respond twice in the discussion about data collection.
  5. Complete the assignment about single-subject designs.
  6. For each assignment, review the grading rubric so that you know what’s expected.
  7. Address every component of your discussions and assignments.
2 days ago

This Week’s Essential Learning

While many people find student behavior challenging and frustrating, especially in the classroom, it can be exciting to follow the data to discover the causes underlying what makes a student tick or act out. Moreover, it is rewarding and exhilarating to watch a student’s negative behavior—which had interfered with appropriate social skills, communication with others, academic progress, or independent functioning—decrease, or even disappear. When negative behaviors dissipate, a student is more able to function on a higher level. Helping students put themselves on the path to becoming the best people they can be is what teaching is all about, right? To that end, all professional educators should understand underlying meanings of behavior and what students are communicating or reacting to with their behavior.

I conduct quite a few behavioral observations in the high school where I teach. In fact, conducting these observations happens to be one of my favorite things to do! I enjoy observing a student within the classroom environment, comparing her to her peers, watching the teacher’s instructional methods, collecting data, and evaluating all interrelated facets in order to design a plan of action to help the student become more functional. However, implementing a behavior intervention plan (BIP) for a student in high school is very challenging. From my experience, when a student is invested and highly motivated to earn her reward, she is more apt to remind all her teachers that her data collection sheet must be completed on a daily basis. Therefore, finding the right “carrot” is of utmost importance. Although the reward is what’s most important to the student, reviewing the data collection sheet with her is also rewarding, both for the student and the teacher. It provides an opportunity to verbally reinforce the student’s progress and to talk about any barriers that may continue to keep her from meeting her outlined goals. Finally, there is nothing more amazing than sitting in an IEP conference with parents and hearing how happy and proud they are of their child because she has made incredible progress behaviorally or has achieved her behavioral goals. There is nothing more important that helping a student move closer to her future dreams!

As you work through the course material this week, apply the skills learned to the following scenarios. Think about how you would set up a data collection process in order to compose a BIP. Good luck!

Practice Scenarios

  1. Sam has never enjoyed math class. In particular, he finds taking notes during class challenging. Sam is provided with partially completed notes so he just has to fill in the blanks. During class instruction, he closes his eyes and puts his head down on his desk. When the teacher encourages him to focus, he puts his head up for about a minute and at times picks up a pencil. If he receives multiple redirections, Sam becomes more vocal and argumentative with the teacher. His notes are incomplete, and he rarely participates in class. This inappropriate behavior occurs several times a week. What would you do to assist Sam in math class?
  2. Jack has a difficult time following directions during class. He has been diagnosed with ADHD and tends to lose focus very easily in class. In particular, English class is difficult for him because there are so many transitions. Jack relies on the teacher or teacher assistant to initiate each task. This includes taking out a pencil, piece of paper, or a book. Thus, he rarely completes a task independently. How would you motivate Jack in class?
2 days ago

Recommended Resources

Data Collection Explanation

http://iseesam.com/content/teachall/text/behavior/…

Individual Data Collection Methods & Data Collection Sheets

http://www.escambia.k12.fl.us/pbis/data/

Behavior Babe: ABCs of ABA

http://www.behaviorbabe.com/abcsofaba.htm

References

Dawson, C. (2016). Week 3 instructor guidance [ESE 691: Behavior Management in the Classroom]. San Diego, CA: Ashford University.

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