Criminal Justice – Wrongful Convictions Assignment | Professional Writing Services


TERM RESEARCH INFORMATION                      Introduction to Criminal Justice CJ&101

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  1. Grading Criteria

All term papers must comply with academic standards of quality and excellence. Papers are to be each student’s own original work. Students who plagiarize will receive no points for the paper.  Plagiarism is stealing another person’s work, words and ideas and passing them off as your own. The original copy of the paper is to be submitted to the course instructor. The paper may be used only for one course. Paper topics must be course related. They could be scored in accordance with the following criteria, though each professor establishes his/her own grading policy.


Area 1 Literature Review (20%)

a) Depth and Comprehensiveness: Were a sufficient number of relevant sources utilized to provide a thorough exploration of the topic?

b) Appropriateness of References: Were scholarly materials used?




Area 2 Analysis (60%)

a) Adequate Description of Major Themes And Findings: Does the descriptive or narrative portion of the paper contain sufficient detail? Are basic structures and processed discussed?

b) Synthesis of Subject Matter: Does the paper reflect an understanding of various aspects of the topic and how they relate to one another?

c) Quality of Criticism: Are major criticisms and/or weaknesses thoroughly reviewed?  Are there sufficient examinations of adequacy and/or effectiveness?

d) Potential Solutions: Are alternatives explored in terms of costs and benefits, advantages and disadvantages?



Area 3 Form and Style (20%)

a) Organization: Is the paper organized in an orderly fashion with topic headings?

b) Style: Is the writing style coherent?  A good reference book on style is Strunk & White, Elements of Style.

c) Grammar: Are words used and spelled correctly, are paragraphs used, and are all sentences complete? Are contractions avoided?

d) References and Citations: Are references properly cited and acknowledged in the body and at the end of the paper?


  1. Preparation of Term Papers in the APA Style



The following suggestions concerning the structure, organization and composition of term papers using the citation of style of the American Psychological Association are intended to make your task easier.  They are not given with the intention of being pedantic.  They are given to save you time, energy, and irritation.



Record all references when they are first read.  Record the information in the following manner:


Gibbons, D.C. (1968) Society, Crime, and Criminal Careers.  Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.


Jeffery, C.R. (1965) “Criminal Behavior and Learning Theory,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, July, Vol 52(1): 293-300.



The instructor may require that an outline be submitted prior to the paper’s due date. Even if an outline is not required, it may prove to be beneficial to construct an outline before writing the paper itself.


Generally speaking, an outline consists of major and minor topic headings, organized with regard to the specific topic being researched. Topic headings usually include an introduction, historical background and/or literature review, main body of the text, critique (including the presentation of pro and con positions), proposed solutions, conclusions, and summary, followed by a complete listing of all references referred to or cited in the text.

The title should be centered on a separate page and should be followed by your name, the course number, day and time of the class meeting, and the name of the instructor, in the following manner:

Biological Theories of Criminality
Malak Zaki
Introduction to Criminal Justice 101
Online, 8:00 – 9:00 AM
Dr. Banks Sr.

The first heading should be centered on the page in the following manner:

Genetic Studies of Criminality

Note that the first heading is typed in capitals and lower case and is not underlined.  Underlining is reserved for material that is intended to be italicized in the text.  Sub-headings, which represent a topic under the main heading, are placed even with the margin and italicized in the following manner:

Study of family histories and genealogies

Should it be necessary to use an even finer breakdown of topic material (i.e., fourth or fifth headings), it is recommended that a system of numbering or lettering be used.


  • Citing Cases


Federal Court Cases are cited by case name, followed by description of the book in which the case is found, description of the court that decided the case, and the year it was decided.  e.g.


case name   vol #  book  page #  year decided

Gregg v. Georgia  428  U.S.  153   (1976).


case name             vol #             book               page #                 court  year decided

Peete v. Rose         381            F. Supp            1167                    (W.D. Tenn 1974).

Peete v. Rose, 381 F. Supp 1167 (W.D. Tenn. 1974)


State Supreme Court Cases are cited by case name, followed by state reporter volume and page, followed by regional reporter volume and page, followed by year.

Some states have state reports, so the citation is:

case name          vol #       state report        page #        vol #        regional rep       page       year

State v. Metzger          211      Neb.           593              319           N.W. 2d         459    (1982).

State v. Metzger, 211 Neb. 593, 319 N.W. 2d 459 (1982).

Others do not, so the citation form is:

case name          vol #                    book              page #         State Sup Ct  year

Commonwealth v. Wright  190        A.2d              709                     (Pa. 1963).

Commonwealth v. Wright, 190 A.2d 709 (Pa. 1963).

If you have not read the actual case, but have read and are reporting what another author has said about the case, cite to your primary source as follows:

Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976) as cited in Krantz (1986:96).

  1. References

As stated above, the list of references listed in alphabetical order should include only those items quoted or cited in the text.  They should be cited in full, and in the following manner:


Carhes, Sam P. (1978) Controlling Juvenile Delinquency.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.   (This is the proper citation format for a book citation by a single author.)

Smith, James B., and Ann M. Jones (1978) Controlling Juvenile Delinquency.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.   (This is the proper citation format for a book which has two authors.)

Smith, J.B., A.M. Jones and Y.Z. Brown (1988) Controlling Juvenile Delinquency.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.  (This is the proper citation format for a book with multiple authors.)

Taylor, C.R. (Ed.) (1988) Controlling Juvenile Delinquency: New Methods and Approaches.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.   (This is the proper citation format for an edited collection of papers or anthology.)

Tittle, Y.A. (1988) “Juveniles in Jeopardy”, in J.B. Smith (Ed.) Controlling Juvenile Delinquency.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.  (This is the proper citation format for a chapter or article in an edited collection of papers or anthology.)

Tyler, William R. (1985) “Police and Delinquency,” Journal of Criminal Justice, March, Vol 13(3): 1-14.  (This is the proper citation format for a journal article with one author.)

Tyler, William R. (1988) “an Experimental Study in Delinquency Control,” Crime and Delinquency. February, Vol 56(2): 255-260.  (This is the proper citation format for a journal article with one author.)

Williams, Ron B., and T. Bradshaw (1988) “An Experimental Study in Delinquency Control,” Crime and Delinquency, February, Vol 56(2): 255-260.   (This is the proper citation format for a journal article which has two authors.)

The complete first name can be written or only the initials can be noted.  Decide one way or the other and adhere to that format throughout the reference listing.  Also note that when listing the same person as a single author two or more times, list the author’s earliest work first.

Variations on any of the above can be found in the official publications of the APA, including the American Psychologist, Psychological Bulletin, and Psychological Review.


Research Topics


Research Topics in Criminology:


Criminology as Social Science

Criminology and Public Policy

History of Criminology









Research Topics in Crime and Victimization:


Age and Crime.

Aggression and Crime.

Citizenship and Crime.

Education and Crime.

Employment and Crime.

Families and Crime.

Gender and Crime.

Guns and Crime.

Immigration and Crime.

Intelligence and Crime.

Mental Illness and Crime.

Neighborhoods and Crime.

Peers and Crime.

Race and Crime.

Religion and Crime.

Social Class and Crime.


Weather and Crime.




Research Topics in Criminology Theories:


Biological Theories.

Classical Criminology.

Convict Criminology.

Criminal Justice Theories.

Critical Criminology.

Cultural Criminology.

Cultural Transmission Theory.

Deterrence and Rational Choice Theory.

Feminist Criminology.

Labeling and Symbolic Interaction Theories.

Life Course Criminology.

Psychological Theories of Crime.

Routine Activities Theory.

Self-Control Theory.

Social Construction of Crime.

Social Control Theory.

Social Disorganization Theory.

Social Learning Theory.

Strain Theories.

Theoretical Integration.









Research Topics in Types of Crime:

Campus Crime.

Child Abuse.


Domestic Violence.

Elder Abuse.

Environmental Crime.

Hate Crime.


Human Trafficking.

Identity Theft.

Juvenile Delinquency.

Organizational Crime.



Sex Offenses.


Theft and Shoplifting.

White-Collar Crime.

Wildlife Crime.









Research Topics in Criminal Justice System:


Capital Punishment.

Community Corrections.

Crime Prevention.

Criminal Courts.

Criminal Justice Ethics.

Criminal Law.

Criminal Specialization.

Drug Courts.

Drugs and the Criminal Justice System.

Felon Disenfranchisement.

Forensic Science.

Juvenile Court.

Juvenile Justice.

Mass Media, Crime, and Justice.

Offender Classification.

Offender Reentry.

Police–Community Relations.

Prison System.

Problem-Solving Courts.

Public Health and Criminal Justice.

Racial Profiling.

Restorative Justice.


The Police.

Victim Services.

Wrongful Convictions.

Youth Gangs.


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