Compare and contrast working and reference memory.

1. In what ways is punishment similar to positive reinforcement? In what ways is it different?

2. Compare and contrast working and reference memory.

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3. Describe spatial learning tasks and mechanisms that have been used to explain efficient performance in such situations.

1. What are species-specific defense reactions, and why is it important to consider them in avoidance and punishment situations?

2. Describe factors that enhance the effectiveness of punishment in suppressing behavior.

1. How is avoidance responding related to conditioned fear and the expectation of aversive stimulation?

2. Compare and contrast discriminated and freeoperant avoidance procedures

3. How can the concept of a safety signal be used to explain free-operant avoidance learning?

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