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APAStyleManual,7thEdition

QuickReferenceGuide

 

APA style hasaseries ofrules about Format, WritingStyle, Citations, andReferences

 

FORMAT

 

The format is a standardizedmethod ofwriting a paper. Your paper should include four major sections:the titlepage, abstract, main body of text, and references.

 

Spacing

Lines are double-spaced, includingtitlepage andreferences page.

 

Font

Times New Roman, 12 point ; Calibri, 11 point; Ariel, 11 point ; Lucida Sans Unicode, 10 point ; Georgia, 11 point ; Computer Modern, 10 point.

 

Margins

1” fortop, bottom, rightand left margins on allpages, left justified.Indentfirst line ofparagraphsahalfinch (12 spaces). Do notuse extradouble spacing between paragraphs.

 

 

 

TITLE PAGE (PAGE 1) Contains the followinginformation, centered on the page, double spaced:

 

Pagenumber

FullTitle

 

Author

Miami Regional University

Course

Dr. UlianaGancea

Due Date

 

Title

Title Case letters

 

No Running Head for student papers!

 

ABSTRACT (PAGE 2) Centertheword “Abstract”.Begin writingthe abstract on thenext line. Do not indent. Abstract should include theresearch topic,research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysisandconclusions, implications of research,and futurework. Abstract should bea single paragraph and should have between 150to 250 words.

 

Header

Top of everypage. Tocreate a pageheader, insert pagenumbers flush right.

 

 

WRITINGSTYLE

 

TEXT (PAGE 3 -?) –Thetext ofyourpaper should begin on page3 unlessyour professor requires a tableof contents.

 

 

 

Point ofViewandVoice

You should writeusingthethird person point of view(“Thestudyshowed…”). Papers should bewritten

usingthe activevoice(“Wakowski (2010) conducted research…”.

 

 

 

Clarity andConciseness

Papers should be writtenin clearandconcise language. Avoid wordyor unnecessarilycomplexsentences. Sentences should be specific with enough details to adequatelyhelp readers understand. Eliminateunnecessarywords and condenseinformation.

 

Usesimple, descriptiveadjectives andplain languagethat does not risk confusingthereader. Avoid slangandjargon.

 

Avoid usinglanguagesuggestingsomethinghas been proven, such as“proves”or “proof”. Research papers do not provetheoryorhypotheses. Usewords like “suggests”or “indicates”.

 

 

 

Biased Language

Avoid biased forms of language concerningrace,disability,and sexuality.Avoid usinglabels to identify

individuals or groups ofpeople.Insteadcallpeoplewhat theyprefer to becalled.It is preferable to not use pronouns because theycan confusethe reader.Replacepronounswith nouns (person, individual, etc)or useadjectives to serveas descriptorsratherthan labels (“elderlypeople” rather than just“the elderly”).

 

Headings

There are5heading levelsin APA to separate andclassifypaper sections.The6th edition of theAPA

manual revises and simplifies previous heading guidelines. Regardless of thenumberof levels, always use theheadings in order, beginningwith level 1.The format ofeach levelis illustrated below:

 

APA Headings
Level Format
1 Centered, Bold, Title Case Headings
2 Left-aligned, Bold,Title Case Heading
3 Left-aligned, Bold, Italic, Title CaseHeading
4 Indented, Bold, Title CaseHeading, Endingwitha Period.
5 Indented, Bold,Italic, Title CaseHeading, Endingwith Period.

 

 

Thus, if the articlehas foursections, someof which havesubsections and some ofwhich donot, use headings dependingon thelevel of subordination.Section headings receivelevel one format. Subsections receive leveltwo format. Subsections of subsections receive level three format. For example:

 

Methods (Level 1)

Siteof Study(Level 2) Participant Population(Level 2)

Teachers(Level3)

 

Students(Level 3)

 

Results (Level 1)

 

SpatialAbility(Level 2)

 

Test One(level 3)

 

Teachers withExperience.(Level 4)

 

Teachers inTraining(Level 4)

 

Test Two(Level3)

 

KinestheticAbility (Level 2)

 

InAPA Style, theIntroduction section nevergets a headingand headings arenot indicated bylettersor numbers.Levels of headings willdepend upon thelength and organization ofyour paper. Regardless, always begin with level oneheadings andproceedto level two, etc.

 

 

IN-TEXTCITATIONS

 

In-text citations areplaced in parentheseswithin the text of thepaper to document sourceofinformation.In-text citations includework thatiseither adirectquotationorparaphrase.

 

REMEMBER:

Direct Quotes >Quotationmarks,  page#              Paraphrases >No quotation marks, no page#

 

 

 

DIRECT QUOTATIONusing exact wordsfroma source

Usequotation marks “”

Include page# orparagraph #

Book,Magazine, Journalarticle:

(Author’s last name, publication date, p. #)Ex: (Smith, 2009, p. 12)

 

 

WebpagearticlewMultiple Authorswith TWO authors:

(Author, copyright OR last update, para. #)Ex: (Jones, 2009, para.3)

 

 

Webpagearticlewith NOauthor:

(“Shortened article title”, copyright OR last update, para. #)Ex: (“Pizzas,” 2009, para. 4)

 

 

Multiple Authors:with TWOauthors:                   Ex:(Smith &Jones, 2002, p. 3)

(Author’slastname,publicationdate,p.#)

 

 

Multiple Authors:with 3 or more authors:

Citeonly thelastname of the first author, followed by “el al.”Ex:(Jones et al., 2002, p. 1)

 

 

 

Quoting anEntireSentence:

 

Author’sname not givenwithinthe sentence:

(Author,publicationdate, page#)

 

“A significantnumberofbusinessprofessionalsare returningto college toearn advanced degrees inorderto

increase theirearningpowerand potential foradvancement” (Smith, 2002,p. 101).

 

 

Author’sname used tointroducea quote:

Introductoryphrasewithauthorname(publicationdate)…(page #)

 

Accordingto Smith (2002),“A significantnumberofbusinessprofessionalsare returningto college toearn advanced degreesin order to increasetheirearningpowerandpotential foradvancement” (p.101).

 

 

 

Quoting Part ofa Sentence:

 

Author’sname not givenwithinthe sentence:

For manyadults,thecommitmentto obtaininga college degreeis motivated bya desireto “increasetheirearning

powerand potentialforadvancement”(Smith, 2002,p.101).

 

 

Author’sname used to introducea quote:

Smith (2002)explainsthatformanyadults, the commitment to obtaininga collegedegreeis motivated bya desire

to “increasetheirearningpowerandpotential foradvancement” (p. 101).

 

NOTE:  Before using anauthor’s nameto introducea quote or paraphrase, you must first introducethe

author to identify this author’s expertise.  Forexample, you might say:

 

JamesSmith (2002), authorofThe New CollegeLandscape, explains that“today’scollege studentis oftenan

adultprofessionalwith overfiveyears’experience, married, a parent, and anactive volunteer”(p. 12).

 

 

Quoting 40 or MoreWords:

 

Usingblockquotation formatand indent QUOTE ONLY.5 inch from leftmargin– do not usequotation marks

 

Author’sname not givenwithinthe sentenceused to introduce aquote:

 

Adultstudents are often more dedicated toachievingtheircollege educationthanmanytraditional students.

Mostadultstudents who make the choice to return to college areaccustomed toprioritizingtheirtasks. Theseindividuals have experienced the demandsofjugglingtheirresponsibilitiesand are more willing

and ableto take theinitiative to succeedin theiracademic career. (Smith,2002,p.121)

Manyadults whohave excelled intheirprofessional livesknowhowto applythemselvesin theirnewacademic life.

 

 

Author’sname used to introducea quote:

 

Smith (2002)points out thatadultstudents are often more dedicated to achievingtheircollege education than manytraditionalstudents.

Mostadultstudents who make the choice toreturn to college areaccustomed toprioritizingtheirtasks. Theseindividuals have experienced the demandsofjugglingtheirresponsibilitiesand are more willing

and ableto take theinitiative to succeedin theiracademic career.(p. 121)

Manyadultswhohave excelled intheirprofessional livesknowhowto applythemselvesin theirnewacademic life.

 

 

NOTE:After the initialintroduction of theauthor, you maythen usethe author’s last nameonly to introducethe quoteor paraphrase, a technique thatadds credibility and authority to your sources.

 

Citing Personal Communication-For letters, memos, e-mail, interviews, citesourcein text only. Do not liston References page.

 

S.U.Varnes (personalcommunication, May12, 2001) acknowledges …

 

PARAPHRASEInterpreting an idea expressed byauthor, byrestating passage in your own words

 

No quotation marks used

No pageor paragraph #

 

Book,Magazine, Journalarticle:

(Author’s last name, publicationdate)Ex:  (Smith, 2009)

 

Webpagearticlew/author:

(Author, copyright date OR last update)Ex: (Jones, 2009)

 

Webpagearticlewith NOauthor:

(“Shortened article title”, copyright date OR last update)Ex:  (“Pizzas,” 2009)

 

Multiple Authors:with TWOauthors:                                      Ex:  (Smith &Jones, 2002)

(Author’slastname,publicationdate,p.#)

 

Multiple Authors:with 3or more authors:

Citeonly the last name of the 1st author, followed by “et al.”Ex.  (Jones et al, 2002)

 

Author’sname not givenwithinparaphrased sentence:

(Author,publicationdate–nopage#)

Therevitalization ofmany urbanneighborhoodshasresultedin asubstantialincreasein property values(Lentz,

2003).

 

Author’sname used to introduceparaphrase:

Introductoryphrasewithauthorname(publicationdate)…(page#)

Urban plannerJamesLentz(2003)assertsthattherevitalizationofmanyurban neighborhoods hasresulted ina substantialincrease inproperty values.

 

PARAPHRASE DON’TPLAGIARIZE!

Plagiarismis the“useorclose imitation of the language andthoughtsofanotherauthorandtherepresentation of themasone’s own original work” (Stepchyshyn& Nelson, 2007, p. 65). Paraphrasingisreadingthe workofanotherauthor,interpretingitinto yourown words, and thencitingthe originalsource.Three ormoreconsecutive words directlyfroma sourceareconsidereda DirectQuote,and mustbecitedasaDirectQuote.

 

Originalby author JamesBaker, published 2003:

 

A seriousdilemma often faced byemployees whenconsidering changingjobs, even when the newpositionis animprovementintheircurrentemployment situation, is whetherto riska changein theirhealthinsurance coverage,particularlyforindividuals with pre-existingconditions.

 

 

Plagiarism-Passagerewritten, but with onlya few words changed:

A seriousproblem often faced byemployees whenthinkingabout changingjobs, even when the newjobis betterthantheircurrentjob, is whetherto riskgetting differenthealthinsurance,especiallyforpeople withpre-existingconditions(Baker, 2003).

 

 

Paraphrased-Passagere-written to express the idea of theauthor, but inyour own words:

For manyemployees withhealth problems, often makingthe decision ofwhetherornot tochangejobsis based on theneedto maintain thesame health insurancecoverage and notontheprospectofa bettercareeropportunity (Baker, 2003).

 

 

 

RULE OF THUMBforUsing Sources:

 

Never begin a paragraphwith a quote, end aparagraph with a quote, or useback to back quotes

OFFER YOUR ANALYSIS! DON’TLET THEQUOTESPEAK FORITSELF!

 

 

IN-TEXTCITATION–WEBPAGES

 

Thesamerules forregular in-text citations apply to webpages, except that page numbers are replaced byparagraph numbers,which arefound by counting paragraphs startingat thetop ofthe page.

 

REMEMBER:

Direct Quotes >Quotation marks,  para. #             Paraphrases   >No quotation marks, no para. #

 

 

 

DIRECT QUOTES:

(Author,update/copyright date,paragraph#)

 

 

 

PARAPHRASES:

(Author,update/copyright date)

 

  1. If no author –give shortened articletitle. If no articletitle –give websitename(NOTURL!)

 

  1. 2. If no dateforwebsite–put n.d.

 

  1. Hand numberparagraphs–whencitingDirectQuotes

 

 

Direct Quote

(Author,update/copyrightdate,paragraph#)

 

Theuse of “pizzatoppings that seem bizarreto current tastes, suchas squid and octopus, were common

in the fishingareas of theMediterranean Sea” (Smith, 1998, para. 5).

 

 

Direct Quote–fromarticleentitled“PizzasoftheWorld,”fromwebsitecalledPizzaLore,Noauthorgiven:

(“Shortenedarticletitle”,update/copyrightdate,para.#)

 

Theuse of “pizzatoppings that seem bizarreto current tastes, suchas squid and octopus, were common in the fishingareas of theMediterranean Sea”(“Pizzas,” 1998, para. 5).

 

 

Direct Quote –fromwebsitecalledPizzaLore,Noauthororarticletitlegiven:

(Websitename,update/copyrightdate,paragraph#)

 

Manyculinaryarchaeologists havedetermined that “themakingof pizzawas actuallyanaccident”

(PizzaLore, 1998, para. 5).

 

 

REFERENCES

 

All researchpapers mustcontaina referencepagewith isa list ofreferences(allsourcescited inthe paper,)starting on a new pageafter the bodyof thepaper.

 

TheReferences pageshould contain fullpublication information (seeexamples below).Onlysources cited in thebodyof thepaper should appear on theReferences page.

 

REFERENCEPAGEFORMAT

Centertitle“References”Title Case and bold, no underline,no italics

Pagenumberingshould be continued in theupperright corner of theReferencespage.

Foreach entryin thelist, the first line begins at theleft margin andallfollowinglines areindenteda half inch or twelvespaces.

Linesaredouble-spaced.

Alphabetizebyfirst word of entry(author’s last name; titleif no author)

Iftherearetwo or more entries forthe sameauthor, arrangeby year ofpublication with the earliest one first.If theentries are forthe sameyear, uselowercaseletters(a, b, c)with theyear.

Do not utilize anyunderliningor quotation marksfortitles. Book titles, magazine/journal titles and volume (issue) number areto be in italicsonly.

Websites arenot to beunderlined.Hyperlinks should be removed.

Capitalize journalor magazinetitles.

Capitalizeonlythefirst word ofthe title ofabookorarticle, except for proper nouns.

 

 

EXAMPLES–  REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES

(Examples aresingle-spaced; actual referencelist is doublespaced.) The followingentriesare examples

ofthe most commonlyused research sources.  Refer directlyto theAPA Manual foradditional examples ofReferencelist entries.

 

 

Bookwith OneAuthor:

Author,A.A.(yearofpublication).Book Title.NameofPublisher.

 

Jones, S. (2010).The Jones Chronicles.Smith PublishingCompany.

 

 

Bookwith Two or MoreAuthors:

Author,A.A.,& Author,B.B.(YearofPublication).Book Title.NameofPublisher.

 

Jones, S., &Smith,J. (2010).TheHistory of Miami Regional University. Jones andSmithPublishing.

 

 

Bookwith 3 to 20authors:

Miller, J., Kramer, P., Cane,L.&Font, M. (2010). How to Bea Business Partner. HarlanPublishers.

 

 

Bookwith morethan20 authors:add “et al.” after the 20th author

Logan, P., Smith, U.,Lenz, R., Tome, M., Fox, P., Jones, M., Smith, J., Sones, S., Miller, J., Cane, L., Font, M., Richards, K., Rojas, W., Perez, P., Brown, S., Morales, A., Slade, R., Carry, T., Print, B., Harrison, G., et al. (2010).Elements ofReal EstateTransactions. RidgeworthPublishers.

 

 

EditedBook:

Jones, S., &Smith,J. (Eds.). (2010). TheHistoryof Miami Regional University(4thed.).Jones and Smith Publishing.

 

 

Article/Essay inanEditedBook:

Author,A.A. (YearofPublication). Article/essaytitle. Bookeditor’sname(editorabbreviatedEd.),BookTitle. (articlepages). Publisher.

 

Spencer, J.  (2010). Theethical basis fortermination. In J. Kelp (Ed.),Ethics inBusiness(pp 282-292).

Hampton Press.

 

Dissertation:

Author,A.A. (YearofPublication). DissertationTitle(Doctoraldissertation).Database.

 

Smith,J.V. (2010). Relationshipbetween Board ofDirectorsand ExecutiveOffers: Effect onTurnover. ProQuest Dissertations and Thesesdatabase.

 

 

NewspaperArticle(thisis theonly instancewhere you willuse p. or pp. in front ofthe pagenumbers on the References page):

Author,A.A. (Year,MonthDay).Articletitle.NameofNewspaper,p.orpp.page#(s).

 

Jones, S. (2009, April12). MRUOpens NewCampus.MiamiObserver,p. A3.

 

 

MagazineArticle:

Author,A.A.(Year,MonthDay).Articletitle,MagazineName,volume(issue#,if applicable),page#(s).

 

Smith,J. (2009, May1).FloridaPower UnderstatesEarnings.Newsweek, 5(1), 23-24.

 

Ifa magazine or journalarticle has more than twoauthors,followthe rulefor booksregarding numberof authors.

 

 

MagazineArticle with No Author:

Articletitle.(Year,MonthDay).MagazineName,volume(issue#,ifapplicable),page#(s).

 

FloridaPower UnderstatesEarnings. (2009, May1).Newsweek, 5(1), 23-24.

 

 

Journal Article:

Author,A.A.(yearofpublication).Articletitle.JournalName,volume(issue#),page#(s).

 

Johnson,J. (2010). Theundergraduate student population of Miami RegionalUniversity’sgraduating class of2018. Journal of Education Statistics, 1(2), 200-211.

 

 

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

Alldigitalobject identifier (DOI) numbers are entered as URLs. Do not use the formulation “retrieved from”. Example: https://doi.org/10.1037/028-6133.27.3.379

 

 

Journal Article Retrieved fromanOnlineDatabasewith a DOI:

TheMRU Online has manyscholarlydatabases such as EBSCO Host,AcademicSearch Elite, LIRN,

etc.

 

Author, A.A.(YearofPublication). Article title.Journal name,volume(issue #),page #(s).DOI

 

Johnson,J. (2010). TheUndergraduate Student Population of Miami RegionalUniversity’sGraduating Class of2020. Journal of EducationStatistics, 1(2), 200-211. https://doi.org/10.1037/028-6133.27.3.379

 

 

Journal Article Retrieved fromanOnlineDatabasewithout a DOI:

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOIrequire a URL.

 

Author,A.A.,&Author,B.B.(Dateofpublication).Titleofarticle.TitleofJournal,volume#.http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

 

Kenneth,I. A.(2010). ANurse’sResponse to theNatureof HumanRights.Journal of Ethics, 8.

http://cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

 

 

INTERNET SOURCES –Must giveauthor’s nameifavailable, last update/copyrightdate, retrieval date, or complete URL.DONOT ONLYLIST URLforWebpagesources.

 

Ifauthorgiven:

Author,A.A. ifknown.(Year,MonthDay).Titleofsection.Websiteaddress.

 

Grant, C. (2010). WhyGo to College?https://whygotocollege.com

 

Ifno authoris given, beginwith article title:

Articlename.(Year,MonthDay).Websiteaddress.

 

Sharkattack.(2010, January). hpps://www.sharkattack.com

 

 

NewspaperArticle RetrievedfromtheNewspaper’s Website:

Author,A.A.(Year,MonthDay).Articletitle.NewspaperName.Websiteaddress.

 

Greenwood,L. C. (2009,May3). Education loans at all-timelow. TheWashington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com

 

 

Article inanOnlineOnly Periodical:

Author,A.A.(Year,MonthDay).Articletitle.PeriodicalTitle,volume(issue).Websiteaddress.

 

Kobb, M. (2010). TheNew South. Lifestyles, 5(2). https://lifestyles.com

 

 

Article inanOnlineEncyclopedia or OtherReferenceWork:

Referencearticlename.(Year,MonthDay).InNameofReferenceSource.Websiteaddress.

 

Scholar. (n.d.).InMerriam-Webster’s online dictionary.https://webster.com/dictionary/scholar

 

 

MISCELLANEOUSSOURCES

 

Organization/Company Website:

Author,A.A. ifknown.(Year,MonthDay).Titleofsection.Websiteaddress.

 

Wal-Mart Stores,Inc. (2010). About us. http://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/

 

 

GovernmentPublicationPrint Version:

Governmentalagency. (YearofPublication). TitleofPublication. (Publication#.) Publisher.

 

U.S. Department ofLabor U.S. Bureau ofLabor Statistics. (2009).Womenin thelabor force: A databook(2009 edition).(Report No. 1018).  U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

 

GovernmentPublicationElectronic Version:

Governmentalagency. (YearofPublication). Titleofpublication. (Publication#.) Publisher.

 

U.S. Department ofLabor U.S. Bureau ofLabor Statistics. (2009).Womenin thelabor force: A databook(2009 edition).(Report No. 1018).U.S.Bureau ofLabor Statistics Division ofLabor Force Statistics.http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook2009.htm

 

 

References

 

A condition we can ill afford: Debating the Equal PayAct of1963. (n.d.). http://www.historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6196

Banzak,L.,Bewith, K.,&Rut, D. (2009).Women’s movement facing thereconfiguredstate. CambridgeUniversityPress.

Boushey, H.(2006). Tag-teamparenting. Center for Economic and PolicyResearch.

Carr-Ruffino, N.,&Acheson, J. (2007,July). Thehybrid phenomenon.Futurist, 41(4), 16-22.

https://doi.org.10.1037/028-6133.27.3.379

 

Hars, M. (2008). Welcome to ‘Whole-Mart’. Dissent, 53(1), 61-66. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pd

JetBlue Airlines. (2010, January, 15). About JetBlue. http://investor.jetblue.com/phoenix.zhtml

Kagey, Y.(2007, June22).JimPress gets ok to join Toyota’s board.Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/06/21/AR20070 62102647_pf.html

National Organization for Women [NOW]. (2009).Women lose million dueto wagegap.http://www.now.org/press/2578

U.S. Equal EmploymentOpportunityCommission. (2007a).Equal payandcompensation discrimination. http://www.eeoc.gov/types/epa.html

U.S. Equal EmploymentOpportunityCommission. (2007b).Facts about compensation discrimination.

 

http://eeoc.gov/facts/fs-epa.html

 

 

 

 

 

Title of the Paper

 

Author/Student’s Name

Miami Regional University

ENC2201: Report Writing and Research Methods

Dr. Uliana Gancea

April 15, 2022

 

 

 

Abstract

Enter the Abstract section.

Keywords: enter five keywords

 

 

Title of the Paper

Enter the Introduction section here.Do not write the word “Introduction.”

 

Literature Review

Enter the Lit Review section here.

 

Method

Enter the Method section here.

 

Results

Enter Results section here.

 

Discussion

Enter Discussion section here.

 

Limitations and Implications

Enter the Limitations and Implications section here.

 

Conclusion

Enter Conclusion section here.

 

 

 

References

Enter References here by following APA style.

 

 

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