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Productivity

            Productivity is considered by many solely in the context of individual businesses or organizations. Prior to this course, the required reading, and this assignment, I honestly only considered productivity in this manner. While this is an important type of productivity, productivity is so much more. Productivity is a worldwide measure of the people groups and the individuals that compose those groups. Cusolito and Maloney(2018) define productivity as “the efficiency with which societies combine their people, resources, and tools” (p. 1). Rather one is considering themselves, their business, or their nation productivity is a consideration of efficiency. Cusolito and Maloney’s (2018) definition is important because it recognizes the importance of resources and tools in the efficiency of human work. To fully consider the term productivity, one must explore the full range from individual to society and all the related aspects of resources and tools.

Personally, interest in this topic comes from my current professional position. Productivity is the main measure my direct superiors use to evaluate my success in the healthcare organization. This productivity is calculated by the number of visits or procedures related to patient care and the number of full-time equivalents used to provide that care. Maximizing output while minimizing input is the core concept of the organization’s evaluation. However, I often have to explain certain factors that affect productivity and may be held against me. Frustration with such intense focus on solely this sort of productivity led me to study the topic.

Research and Required Reading

            Searching for references related to productivity proves many commonalities with the required reading from Thompson (2020). Numerous articles can be found to further expound on the topics Thompson (2020) covered. Productivity does cover an expanse of ideas. As Thompson (2020) noted, studying productivity does include individuals and businesses (Siemoneit, 2019) as well as nations (Webber,Webber, Berger, & Bradley, 2018).Thompson (2020) rightly notes the importance of examining productivity without dangerously focusing solely on productivity.

One factor pointed out in the required reading was the significance of considering single measure of productivity or total factor productivity (Thompson, 2020). Murray (2016) studied total factor productivity as compared to partial factor. Murray (2016) agreed with Thompson (2020) about the importance of total factor productivity. However, Murray (2016) noted that calculating total factor productivity presents many theoretical and practical challenges. Upon reading about total factor productivity measures, I felt a sense of appreciation as this is the type of productivity my bosses seemingly need to consider. Many factors must be considered in healthcare environment productivity, and some include indirect factors such as organizational culture (Terzioglu,Temel, & Uslu Sahan, 2016).

Considering this course’s focus on global strategy, Thompson’s (2020) consideration of national productivity proves valuable. Thompson (2020) focused on the multifactorial concepts of productivity and highlighted a few countries growing in productivity as well as technology’s prominence in growth. Conversely, Erber,Fritsche, and Harms (2017) focused on the global decreasing of growth in productivity, citing troubles with technology as one of the reasons. The importance of these trends and the reasons should be considered by anyone considering global business and strategy. It is also important to understand that productivity may be related to multiple factors including cultural factors of certain areas and people groups (Webber, Webber, Berger, & Bradley, 2018).

Article Summary

            Erber,Fritsche, and Harms (2017) present a valuable study for anyone considering global economics and strategy. The primary concern of their article is the decreasing growth in labor productivity across 25 nations, the reason for such slowdown, and what to do about it (Erber, Fritsche, & Harms, 2017). Since the 1950s the 25 nations studied have had a demonstrated decline in growth of labor productivity. Two specific time frames were greater for growth decline, the 1970s and the decade of 1995 to 2005. Although there have been some periods of increase in growth for some nations all nations studied had an overall decrease in labor productivity growth since 1950 (Erber, Fritsche, & Harms, 2017).

The authors are careful to link a reason for decreasing productivity. After applying their careful methods, the authors identify decreasing productivity as a result of decreasing gross domestic productivity (GDP) (Erber, Fritsche, & Harms, 2017). This information is important as some might claim the decrease in labor productivity came first, causing the decrease in GDP. Identifying this is not simply a matter of the proverbial chicken or egg came first but drives global business professionals toward understanding the remedy.

The authors note a ten-part plan to improve the declining growth of labor productivity (Erber, Fritsche, & Harms, 2017).The ten parts can be grouped into other major topics. First is the need for increased globalization and joint effort with regulation. The next grouping of remedies focuses on global supply and demand and also focuses on global regulation reforms as well as infrastructure in needed areas. Declines in production and innovations must also be addressed in a way that ecological and long-term, still leaving room for individuality in nations. As the authors noted, there are many factors across the globe and improvement requires a multifactorial effort with global unity (Erber, Fritsche, & Harms, 2017).

Biblical Input

            Scripture advises business professionals related to productivity in several ways. Wisdom Scripture in Proverbs notes the likely financial success of those who are diligent in their work (Proverbs 10:4, ESV). Scripture describes how in the beginning mankind was perfectly productive with a perfect relationship between each other and with God (Genesis 1:28, 2:15, ESV). Mankind’s sinfulness and working against God is what has broken the process of perfect productivity and relationship. The effort of those with a Christian worldview is to live in such a way that God is known and glorified (1 Corinthians 10:31, ESV). Christians as employees and bosses are to work together in this effort for the good of company stakeholders (Colossians 3:22-4:1, ESV). Connecting all of these truths together, Christians in the workplace have an opportunity to make God know in the way they work together for the benefit of those they serve.

Application

Productivity is a foundational part of business functioning. While productivity should not be the only focus of strategy (Thompson, 2020), it must be a skill well managed for financial survival. The fullness of productivity is to be understood and applied too. Individuals must consider individual productivity which leads to other units of productivity including national and global. Business professionals must also understand the many factors involved in productivity and consider all of those factors when trying to improve productivity. Without strong efforts toward productivity businesses will not survive and nations will face instability from economic inefficiency. As Thompson (2020) noted, companies must use productivity to not only do the right thing but do it in the right way.

Annotated Bibliography

Erber, G., Fritsche, U., & Harms, P. C. (2017). The global productivity slowdown: Diagnosis, causes and remedies. Intereconomics, 52(1), 45-50. doi:10.1007/s10272-017-0642-2

Global labor productivity growth has decreased over the last decades per these authors’ findings. Further exploration of their research demonstrates the primary reason for this as the decreasing GDP of nations. A strong effort is made toward improving this trend by advising global business leaders. Their guidance to improve global efforts toward better GDPs through togetherness, innovation, and protected individuality proves useful. Those responsible for business strategy at a global level would be wise to consider the findings of this study. Though no one business or nation will make the specific change to improve this trend knowledge and sharing can help. Business leaders may adjust strategy to be a part of changing this trend for global wellbeing.

Murray, A. (2016). Partial versus total factor productivity measures: An assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. International Productivity Monitor, (31), 113.

Total factor productivity and partial factor productivity are compared in this study.

Siemoneit, A. (2019). An offer you can’t refuse: Enhancing personal productivity through ‘efficiency consumption’. Technology in Society, 59, 101181. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.101181

Terzioglu, F., Temel, S., & Uslu Sahan, F. (2016). Factors affecting performance and productivity of nurses: Professional attitude, organisational justice, organisational culture and mobbing. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(6), 735-744. doi:10.1111/jonm.12377

Webber, D. J., Webber, G. A., Berger, S., & Bradley, P. (2018). Explaining productivity in a poor productivity region. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 50(1), 157-174. doi:10.1177/0308518X17735103

References

Cusolito, A. P., & Maloney, W. F. (2018). Productivity revisited: Shifting paradigms in analysis and policy. Washington, District Columbia: World Bank Group.

Erber, G., Fritsche, U., & Harms, P. C. (2017). The global productivity slowdown: Diagnosis, causes and remedies. Intereconomics, 52(1), 45-50. doi:10.1007/s10272-017-0642-2

Murray, A. (2016). Partial versus total factor productivity measures: An assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. International Productivity Monitor, (31), 113.

Siemoneit, A. (2019). An offer you can’t refuse: Enhancing personal productivity through ‘efficiency consumption’. Technology in Society, 59, 101181. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.101181

Terzioglu, F., Temel, S., & Uslu Sahan, F. (2016). Factors affecting performance and productivity of nurses: Professional attitude, organisational justice, organisational culture and mobbing. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(6), 735-744. doi:10.1111/jonm.12377

Thompson, A. (2020). Crafting &executing strategy:Concepts and readings for competitive advantage (22nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Webber, D. J., Webber, G. A., Berger, S., & Bradley, P. (2018). Explaining productivity in a poor productivity region. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 50(1), 157-174. doi:10.1177/0308518X17735103

 

 

 

Continuous Process

Key Concept Explanation

Continuous process, also referred to as continuous process manufacturing is a production line that operates 24 hours of the day, 7 days a week. The aim of such a flow is to allow the production, of whatever good, to be produceduninterrupted. “The reason it is called a continuous process is because the materials, which can also be fluids, are being perpetually processed. During the process, materials will experience chemical reactions or mechanical or heat treatment(Katana, 2020). The reason I have chosen this key term is mainly academic curiosity. Many production facilities have several moments in which they become “interrupted”, but by understanding more of how a continuous process works, they may be able to incorporate them into their own production, making it more efficient.

 

Comparison

Of all the articles I have read, one of the main similarities that has come up is the products that are being produced, normally ones that are a type of fluid or gas. Strangely enough, once I read through the textbook, I wasn’t allowing my mind to expand on exactly all of what can use this manufacturing type. The pharmaceutical industry is just one that has begun using this process. “Continuous Manufacturing (CM) of pharmaceutical drug products is a rather new approach within the pharmaceutical industry” (Roggo, 2020). Once put into consideration though, I realized that most drugs created are a powder or form of liquid. It does come with its own issues though, especially when considering how exact the drugs need to be made. When producing drugs that are to be used by humans, they need to meet all requirements that the FDA has set, and when considering continuous process, there will have to be actions that are took in order to keep the quality. One of the main issues they face is crystallization. “Some of the challenges tackled regarding continuous crystallization operation are seed generation, fines removal, polymorphic control,investigation of crust formation, and fouling monitoring(Simon, 2018).

 

Article Summary

            The article I have chosen is titled “Control of three different continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes: Use of soft sensors”. Over the period in which I have been researching this topic, I have seen many articles that have went into depth about the pharmaceutical industry and the benefits it has brought, thus leading to my choice. Over the past decades, the pharmaceutical industry has been using a batch process manufacturing system, which at the time, was doing great or seemed to be doing great at least. After countless studies, it has now been determined that continuous process is the best manufacturing system to use. “One major advantage of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing over traditional batch manufacturing is the possibility of enhanced in-process control, reducing out-of-specification and waste material by appropriate discharge strategies” (Rehrl, 2018). As many already know, pharmaceutical drugs can be rather expensive since they have to have a high level of quality. Continuous process has allowed them to create a system in which they can implement more quality standard checks throughout the line all while making the process much faster. This now begins to lower the price of the product while also adding value. The product will become better as it now has more routine checks and the overhead costs of creating them will be slimmer per product since it is now more efficient

Biblical Integration

            When considering any type of manufacturing, one of the main goals is to make it as efficient and as cheap as possible. The reason being is so that it can create more profit but also gives room for the producers to add value. In order to do this, they have to find ways in which it comes closer and closer to perfect. Philippians 3:12 (The New International Version) states, “Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect, but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own”. The same can be said for manufacturing, it may be the best out there for one’s specific industry, but that doesn’t mean it is as good as it could be. Just as we follow Christ, we are never going to be perfect, but it’s crucial in our walk to give it all we have to become so.

 

Application

            Continuous process has already been applied to many real-world businesses. It has been around for a while, but by now having more advanced computers and AI, the process has begun to boom. As mentioned earlier, the pharmaceutical industry is one that is now beginning to utilize this system. It not only creates a faster production, but even creates a safer product, at least in this industry. “It allows quality assurance officials to monitor large quantities of products at onceas opposed to one batch at a time” (Comerford, 2018). This can then correlate to a better product as they now aren’t as stressed from time.

 

 

 

 

Annotated Bibliography

Comerford, M. (2018, February 26). How Continuous Processing is Impacting U.S. Drug Manufacturing Facilities. Retrieved from Trade & Industry Development: https://www.tradeandindustrydev.com/industry/bio-pharmaceuticals/how-continuous-processing-impacting-us-drug-manufa-13749

  • The main concept in this article is comparing batch processing to that of continuous process. Over more than a 50-year time span, batch processing was always used, no matter the technological advancements that had been made. Eventually, what had come to light was how inefficient and risky it was for the pharmaceutical industry. Luckily, that is when they began to experiment with continuous process. What they had found was it actually made the process much faster, but also created a better product. Currently, this mainly being used on creating pills but the process for such now allows them to begin with the chemicals to ending with the packaging of them.

 

Katana. (2020, January 1). What is Continuous Manufacturing and Can Modern Makers Use It? . Retrieved from Katana: https://katanamrp.com/blog/what-is-continuous-manufacturing

  • The main purpose of this article was to explain what continuous process or manufacturing is. More times than not in the past, manufacturing was sort of stop and go or what is known as batch processing. Continuous process is the method in which it doesn’t stop, it continually moves, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The main idea is that once all of the materials or chemicals needed are obtained and placed in to be used, that they never stop until they are at the end, normally packaged and ready to be delivered. This has made many processing facilities work much faster.

 

Rehrl, J. (2018, March 27). Control of three different continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes: Use of soft sensors. Retrieved from Science Direct: https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/science/article/pii/S0378517318301741?via%3Dihub

  • This article is one that is rather large but goes into depth on how they concluded where it would be best to place sensors on a continuous process system. As mentioned earlier, pharmaceutical businesses that create drugs to be used by humans undergo a rigorous amount of safety and quality test. While using a continuous process system, there are many places in which sensors can be placed, all depending on the drug being made and the chemicals that are being used. One of the best ways the businesses have found to do such test is by placing the sensors in all locations to determine when and where they are performing best.

 

Roggo, Y. (2020, February 5). Continuous manufacturing process monitoring of pharmaceutical solid dosage form: A case study. Retrieved from Science Direct: https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/science/article/pii/S0731708519320370?via%3Dihub

  • Again, I have chosen another article that speaks about the pharmaceutical industry. In this one, it goes into depth about the pros and cons of implementing one and how they monitored it for solid dosage. More times than not, there are going to be more pros then there will be cons, but none the less, there are still issues that can arise. It begins by explaining what it is they are creating and just how they plan on monitoring it throughout its creation. This is related to sensors in that they are trying to achieve the best quality for their product.

 

Simon, L. L. (2018, February 14). Continuous manufacturing: Is the process mean stationary? Retrieved from AIChE: https://aiche-onlinelibrary-wiley-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1002/aic.16125

  • As mentioned before, there are always issues that can arise, especially when one is implementing something new. Continuous process is just that to the pharmaceutical industry, new. That being the case, they have been continually researching ways in which they can reduce any errors that may occur or how they can prevent malfunction. When dealing with chemicals that are used in drugs, there are many variables to consider. So when beginning to implement such a system, they have to understand exactly what they are dealing with and just how they can defeat the issues they may see, such as crystallization.

 

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