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To study Malaysia Nai University students’ choice on commercial bank when they applying debit cards

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Research topic: Factors Influence University’s Students in ChoosingCommercial Bank in Nilai for Applying Debit Cards

  • Introduction
    • Research Background

1.1.1 Perspective of University students

Most of university students are in the pivotal watershed of their lives. Participating in university life, it seems that they have to attempt to begin their new independent lives without parents’ protection, anything happens in their daily life have to be solved by themselves, such as governance their own financial situation. Plenty of university students may deal with financial problems first time in their lives, for instance, paying the electricity and water bills for their rental apartment outside the campus, making the money planning and budget for monthly as well as using their name for applying their debit and credit cards. The financial decisions made during these years in university may have profound effect in their future(Shim, Xiao, Barber& Lyons, 2009).

Although in the currently stage, the basic services of commercial banks can meet the great number of university students’ needs, in this situation, the students are staying in the passive position, they may more easily to be attracted by the promotional activities from commercial banks(Thwaites, D. and Vere, L. 1995). However, the potential earning capacity of higher educational students will be above national average income level (Safiek, Mat andSalleh, 2008). Hence, the banks should consider that it is necessary to capture the interests of university students as they may bring long term profitability if they keep the accounts from now on (Lewis, B.R. 1982). It also implicitly reflects that university students are more likely obtaining potential enviableincome after completion of courses. Comparing with those early into society, the successful rate of highly educated students from low-income group to middle-and-upper level is obviously in a leading position (Duncan, Smeedingand Rodgers,1992). It reveals a truth that university students are encouraged to compete for high-required jobs while their salaries and improvement are proportional to their higher education. As the matter of that, respecting and concerning the student’s choice of commercial banks is necessary to study.

Firstly, Nilai University was awarded the excellent school with the teaching quality of 5 stars by Malaysia Qualifications Agency in 2013. Secondly, according to the tracing research of employability of undergraduate students conducted by Ministry of Higher Education in 2015,Nilai University was placed in 17th position among 239 private university in Malaysia. Furthermore, comparing with the Inti University in Nilai, the course expenditures of business (marketing, finance, management, business administration) in Nilai University are RM30,000 lower, which in Nilai University, it only needs to spend RM 54000 to complete all the courses in 3 years. The reasons listed above facilities Nilai University as local even overseas students’ first choice.

Most of students choosing Nilai University from different parts of Malaysia, international students included in the 40% of total number of students come from other countries mainly in Africa and Asia. The common place of them is leaving their family to stay alone in their university life. Hence, they would like to stay in the hostels offered by campus or rent house with their friends out of university. Living outside part may face more financial problems for their life, such as electricity bill, water bill, network costs as well as rental fees, if students open the bank accounts to solve these bills online instead of looking for the offices to pay by themselves, it will not occupy their study time. In additional, international students will be safe if owning a bank account to save their “income” from parents abroad since they left their countries more than half year. Besidesthat, local students are required to own a bank card first when accepting PTPTN from Malaysia National Higher Education Fund Corporation Act 1997. It is convenience for students to apply bank cards during their campus life.

1.1.2 Local Commercial Banks in Nilai

Table: Listof Top 5 Banks in Malaysia Located in Nilai

Ranking Name of Banks
1 Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank)
2 CIMB Group Holdings
3 Public Bank
4 RHB Capital
5 Hong Leong Financial Group

(Ranking of banks in Malaysia from: https://www.relbanks.com/asia/malaysia)

General public access the commercial banks are retail banks since their trading are usually personal financial management and transaction amount compare with large organization’s is small. All retail banks under commercial banks are offering deposit and withdrawal, loan, settlement, foreign exchange, investment and financial services. The purpose of this research is focus on studying factors influence Nilai University’s students’ choice on choosing commercial banks for applying their debit/credit card, normally the university students use banks’ debit card for deposit, withdrawal and settling their daily financial bills.

The research is aim at analyzing debit cards of top 5 commercial banks in Malaysia:

  1. Maybank

Application of Maybank debit card is easily to be satisfied, students just find Maybank around your living place and then submit the required documents and application forms to establish a saving account, therefore, you can require obtaining the debit card when your documents was justified by management.

Before considering applying a debit card, the step you can’t forget is to observe the interest rate of the bank’s saving account, the benefit you earn in saving account can be used for your withdrawals when you take. The interest rate of basic saving account in Maybank exist a clearly dividing line: At most deposit of RM 100,000 in Maybank’s basic saving account, it will earn 25% of your basic deposit; when the saving goes between RM 100,00.01 to RM 200,000, the interest will increase 5%, while the saving climb to RM500,000, it will bring 40% interest for the deposit.

Maybank has introduced 10 types of debit cards for customer to select, the customers can choose their favor debit card based on their personal needs among 10 different alternatives. All of these debit cards are free on the service fee annually, establishing the new account’s payment, the maintenance fee of broken chips on the card, renewal at the time of card expired, 4 times of withdrawals per months, consumptionin retailers and merchants as well as online transfer and transaction  within Maybank accounts. In addition to these free items, the customer needs to pay RM 0.50 each withdrawal if he/she take cash from debit card over 5 times in a month (if pay RM8 once to enjoy unlimited withdrawals annually), the withdrawals taken from other local commercial banks are also charged RM1 service fee in one time, while the holders need to pay more when withdraw in international banks . When customer overdraws from the saving account without any money inside, Maybank will charge RM10 penalty for inefficient cash into bank’s account. Besides this, the customer is able to check its transaction within this month or year with the bank by paying retrieval expenditure of sales, and the bank will charge RM 12 per withdrawal.

(sourcescome from: https://www.maybank2u.com.my/maybank2u/malaysia/en/personal/cards/debit_cards_listing.page?)

 

  1. CIMB

CIMB’s basic saving account is considered suitable for different levels of customers, besides that it also offered junior and youth saving account for young generation. Interest rates announced by CIMB is 25% for the saving below RM100,000, and they provide 30% and 40% interest income for the section of RM100,000.01 to RM200,000 and RM200,000.01 to RM300,000 respectively to saving account holders. Comparing the basic saving account’s deposit interest, the youth saving account will be more acceptable by Nilai University students, account holders within RM 1000 will earn 60% interest every year and it will increase 10% for the saving reach to RM5000 in account.

CIMBhas recommended 6 types of debit Mastercard to public. Among these cards, 5 types of them are required for paying insurance and annual expenditures of RM15 or RM18. The rules for replacement for the banks are almost the same, if the card is damaged manually, then the card holder has responsibility to pay for it, which is RM 12 in CIMB to change a new one; while the card is not applicable because of the card’s mistakes, then the bank has to change the new one to customer without any excuses. The withdrawals within the bank will not charge any fees no matter it happens in Malaysia or in foreign countries, however, if the customers take their money through MEPS in other domestic banks or foreign corporate banks, the transaction will be charged RM 1 and RM 4 for each withdrawal. In the other hand, if the customers need to take cash when they are abroad, CIMB will required them to pay RM 8 by MEPS and RM 10 by Mastercard each time. Like Maybank, checking the bank’s transaction draft will be asked for payment of RM15 per transaction.

(sourcescome from:https://www.cimbbank.com.my/en/personal/support/help-and-support/rates-and-charges.html?c=fees-and-charges&n=debit-cards)

 

  1. Public BankBerhard (Bhd)

Public Bank provides 6 kinds of debit cards to satisfied customers’ needs. Customers should carefully choose the suitabledebit cards for them based on their actual financial situations. Among these cards, PB RCB Elite/Gold debit card, Petron visa debit card and UTAR/TARC debit master card are created without paying annual fee for them, on the contrary, if the customers choose to open PB visa/Matercard/Unionpay lifestyle and Corporate debit card, they have to afford RM8 for their principle card while the annual fee of supplementary cards will be exempted. Furthermore, the type named Visa debit card will be asked to pay RM 24 for their annual fee even the supplementary card will be required to pay for half annual fee of principle cards. The conversion between the cards within the bank will be deducted but only limited to PB BankCard/Day2Day Card transfer to PB Visa/MasterCard Lifestyle debit and PB RCB Elite/Gold debit cards. The withdrawals service fee is the most important part that customers will consider when they are selecting debit cards. Except PB RCB Elite/Gold and visa/Mastercard/UnionPayLifestyle debit card, the leaving 4 types debit cards are asked to pay RM 10 when they take money in other bank’s ATM. However, the PB RCB Elite/Gold and visa/Mastercard/UnionPayLifestyle debit card with MEPS will enjoy the benefit when they only can take money from ATM and locally incorporated foreign banks and Islamic foreign banks with MEPS label just needed to pay RM 1 each withdrawal for service fee, the more expensive service fee to withdraw is in ATM without joining MEPS member, which will charge RM 10 for a transaction.In Public Bank, the penalty of PB RCB Elite/Gold and visa/Mastercard/UnionPayLifestyle debit card will be collected RM12 for each whereas other debit cards will need to pay RM10 to change a new one, and the holders of these two cards can ask for free digital monthly transaction statement, it will not occur any fee on it, while if the customer requires for hardcopy, no matter which type of debit cards, all of them will need to pay RM1for each statement. When the customer request to check more transaction detailed statements, they have to pay RM 5 on them. The customer is able to check the balance in their debit card, only the non-MEPS member of visa debit card will need to pay RM 2 as additional expenditure. The service fee of RM1.5 for every transaction will be pay when the payment method through POS. The thing doesn’t change in every bank is that sales draft retrieval fee only maintains RM 15 to public. (sourcescome from:https://www.pbebank.com/Personal-Banking/Rates-Charges/Fees-Charges/Fees-and-Charges-Credit-Debit-Cards.aspx)

 

  1. RHB

The customers who are interested in RHB’s debit card products will face 5 choices in front of them: RHB Premier visa infinite debit card, RHB Premier banking platinum debit card, RHB debit card Mastercard, RHB Islamic debit card and RHB debit card. The ways of RHB bank collected annual fee on debit card mainly have 2 styles, first one the card holders will not need to pay in the first year while if the consumption through RHB debit card with RM 5000 or using the card to pay the bill above 5 times, the banks will waive the annual service fee, in contrast, the bank will charge you RM 50 every year; another one is that the bank is providing the cashback activity when you use your card no matter when you in Malaysia or go abroad, if you pay RM 12 annually, the banks will return 1% or 5% cashback in your account, otherwise, you have also to pay RM as your annual fee without cashback. RHB bank is warm welcome teenagers who are under 18 years old but above age 12 to open their debit cards as long as you own parents’ guarantee signature letter. This should be the best choice for teenagers who will leave home to boarding school to study. The most popular function of RHB card is that it can pay without contact, it is called contactless payment, when the customers’ bill is under RM 250, they just put card around the reader of payment and then the pos machine will deduct money from debit card automatically. This convenient design will attract young generation to pay attention to the bank’s card products.

The withdrawals service fees are totally different when the transaction happens locally or abroad, if the debit card holder take out cash in local MEPS ATM, the bank will only charge RM 1- 6 at the end of each transaction, if the withdrawals  occur overseas, the service fee of RM 4- 24 will be deducted from saving or current account, the additional expensive of withdrawals through visa or Mastercard will higher in RM8- 48 each time. And the conversional payment to transfer Malaysia Ringgit to cash in foreign countries, 1% of the actual Ringgit charged in Malaysia will also reduce in saving or current account. When card is man-made damage that causes it to be lost or unusable, the card holders has fully responsibility and need to pay RM 15-20 to replace a new one. Comparing with previous 3 banks, the retrieval payment of sales draft will be more expensive from RM 20 or RM 21 for each sales draft.

Debit cards in RHB bank are approved to be use abroad as long as the debit card with the connection with Visa and Mastercard, you will be not afraid of no cash on hands when you are in foreign countries.

(sources come from: https://ringgitplus.com/en/debit-card/RHB/)

  1. Hong Leong Bank

In terms of increasing customers’ consumption pleasure and safety, Hong Leong Bank also provides the contactless service when customers are paying the bill below RM250. The public may concern about the safety problem when the debit card is stolen or using by others. Hong Leong Bank stand on the customer’s side and design the security when the customer’s total payment by contactless on debit card, the security will be activatedand the payment will be access by entering the password to remind you. Besides that, the chips are able to create the unique code of each transaction payment, so that the debit card will not be copied by other easily as well asprevent the theft from stealing the information on the chips repeatedly.

Secondly, the fees of a debit card needed to be charged by banks is the most significant thing to be considered as an university students. The insurance and annual fee will be exempted if you apply for the priority banking card or the debit cards linked to the saving or current bank account in Hong Leong Bank. Oppositely, if you choose generic or junior cards, and character cards for special pictures, the cards are needed to pay RM 8 and RM 12 respectively together with RM 8 annual fee. Unlike above 4 banks, the replacement payment of different type of debit cards are different, the cheapest replacement fee belongs to priority bank cards, while the debit cards linked to basic saving and current account will pay for RM 12, the rest will be RM 18 to obtain a new one. Normally, the transaction within the bank will not charge any fee from customers, only when you withdraw in other bank’s ATM, the other bank will charge your Hong Leong Bank debit card for RM 1 each time. When you go abroad, taking debit cards are also safety and convenience, the bill will occur RM 8 when you take money within MEPS ATM while with visa plus/Mastercard will charge higher of RM12. Swiping debit cards overseas are also supported as long as you apply for visa or Mastercard paying method, 1% service fee will pay for Mastercard/ visa company, in additional, 1% conversion fee for consumption in foreign countries will be collected by Hong Leong Bank. The visa debit card owner can be check their transaction statement monthly which only need to pay RM 2, if the customer wants to printed yearly statement, except RM 10 for basic cost for each requirement, the bank will charge RM 2 for each page of statement if the fiscal year less than 1 year and RM 5 of each page if over one year. The retrieval payment of sales draft only needs RM 20 can be settled in Hong Leong Bank.

(sources come from: https://www.hlb.com.my/en/personal-banking/debit-cards.html?icp=hlb-en-home-footer-debitcard#section-debit-card-1)

 

1.2 Problem statement

University students as the unlimited quality and capacity of potential labor in future society. Nowadays, there are few researches on the influencing factors for college students to choose Banks. Many Banks have shown great concern about the capital management and investment of enterprises.Refer to the research of Safiek, Hayatul and Nik(2009), comparing with the individual saving, they payedmore attention to corporations’ saving accounts, since the inflow and outflow of corporation will bring

substantial income contribution in their fiscal statement.Not only that, some studies has studied the factors that affect the choice of Banks in the whole country, without focusing onwhether people in a certain region have regional differences in the choice of banks. The age of individual savers is too large to find how college students are inclined to choose banks.Furthermore, university students as the part of that population, usually is ignored.

As the result of that, in this research, we are focusing on studying what kind of factors will influence Nilai University students’ choice on commercial banks’ debit card, to see whether in Nilai, the student’s choice will be different with the whole Malaysian choice’ s report.

 

  • Research Questions:

The research questions of this research are listed as below:

  • Does the commercial bank’s service quality affect Nilai University students in choosing commercial bank in Nilai for applying bank’s debit/credit cards?
  • Does the commercial bank’s convenience affect Nilai University students in choosing commercial bank in Nilai for applying bank’s debit/credit cards?
  • Does the commercial bank’s security affect Nilai University students in choosing commercial bank in Nilai for applying bank’s debit/credit cards?
  • Does the commercial bank’s technology affect Nilai University students in choosing commercial bank in Nilai for applying bank’s debit/credit cards?
  • Does the commercial bank’s available information affect Nilai University students in choosing commercial bank in Nilai for applying bank’s debit/credit cards?

 

1.4 Research Objectives

The research objectives of this research are listed as below

  • To analyze connection of commercial bank’s service quality and Nilai University students’ choice in applying bank’s debit/credit cards in Nilai.
  • To analyze connection of commercial bank’s convenience and Nilai University students’ choice in applying bank’s debit/credit cards in Nilai.
  • To analyze connection of commercial bank’s security and Nilai University students’ choice in applying bank’s debit/credit cards in Nilai.
  • To analyze connection of commercial bank’s technology and Nilai University students’ choice in applying bank’s debit/credit cards in Nilai.
  • To analyze connection of commercial bank’s available information and Nilai University students’ choice in applying bank’s debit/credit cards in Nilai.

 

1.5 Significant of Study

University students are also people with high earning potential in the future. Understanding the orientation of Nilai University students in choosing Banks to apply for deposit cards is conducive to the development of the banking industry in Nilai and increases the performance level of regional retail banks.

The reason why we concern about this study in the first place is that workers with high education will obtain a well-paid career easily. Bank who cares about the young university students’ segment will occupy more market share in the future banking industry, some researches state that, most of young generation will remain their bank accounts opened in their university period, it seems that the bank which chosen by university students may obtain greater possibility of students’ future saving.

From the geographical advantage, Nilai is the place connected two important domestic and international airports and Kuala Lumpur, itis equipped with development potential city as well as sound important transportation hub. Besides that, the city was surrounded by 4 excellent university, which named Nilai University, Inti University, University Sains Islam Malaysia, and Xiamen University Malaysia, it is conceivable that college students act as major consumers in Nilai.

Locating in Nilai can be a competitive advantage over other branches, but Malaysia top 5 banks also have branches here, improving competitiveness becomes the most pressing issue they should concern. Since there isn’t any researchers have analyzing the factors that influence Nilai University students’ choice on commercial banks for applying debit cards. The finding of this study will show the preference of students’ choice and provide the literature review to banks and researchers to reference, and this may cause the more researchers to study on different university’s students’ preference of choice on commercial banks.

 

1.6 Chapter Summary

University students have capability to management their financial situation during their campus life. Commercial banks in Nilai are staying in the competitive environment, university students take up majority portion in their customer group, the commercial banks also need such literature to observe university students’ preference to improve their marketing strategies.From the research background, it states that the first step to arrange their money is to apply for the debit card to save their living income from their parents or salary of part-time job. In this study, the selected commercial banks are the top five banks in Malaysia, and it simply introduces the benefits and fees charged of debit cards within these banks. Throughout chapter, the basic understanding of the intention to start this topic will be showed clearly and this research will provide the positive effect to the banking industry in Nilai.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference:

Duncan, G.J., Smeeding, T.M. and Rodgers, W. 1992,, ‘The incredible shrinking middle class’, American Demographics, 14, pp. 34-38.

Lewis, B.R. 1982. ‘Student accounts – a profitable segment’, European Journal of Marketing, 16, pp. 63-72.

SafiekMokhlis, Nik Hazimah Nik Mat and HayatulSafrahSalleh(2008) “Commercial Bank Selection: The Case of Undergraduate Students in Malaysia”

International Review of Business Research Papers   Vol.4 No.5 Pp.258-270

Shim, S., Xiao, J. J., Barber, B. L., & Lyons, A. C. (2009). Pathways to life success: A conceptual model of financial well-being for young adults. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(6), 708-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2009.02.003

Thwaites, D. and Vere, L. 1995. ‘Bank selection criteria: a student perspective’, Journal of Marketing Management, 11, pp. 133-49.

Questionnaire Survey Form

 

FACULTY OF BUSINESS

MBA PROGRAMME (Banking and Finance)

Dear respondents:

I am a student from University, currently enrolled in the MBA (Banking and Finance) course. Now I am doing my final year project paper, which the research topic isfactors influence University’s students in choosing commercial bank in for applying the bank debit cards, therefore, I need to collect some data from respondents like you to fulfill this questionnaire, the personal information of all respondentswill be kept confidential and thanks for your high participation.

 

Section A  Personal Information

Please choose the appropriate one of your personal information in the following questions.

  1. Gender:

Male         Female

  1. Age

18-20 21-23

24-26        27-29

30-32

  1. Education Level:

Foundation        Diploma

Degree           Master

PHD

Section B Bank Selection

  1. Please choose the most frequently used conventional bank. (The following questions will be based on your bank selected)
  2. Maybank
  3. CIMB
  4. Public Bank Bhd
  5. RHB Bank
  6. Hong Leong Bank

 

  1. Are you satisfied with the banking services provided?

Yes                 No

 

Section C Factors that Influence Students’ Choice on Applying DebitCards.

Please select the suitable level of each factors below from 1) Strongly Disagree. 2) Disagree. 3) Neutral. 4) Agree. 5) Strongly Agree.

  1. Service Quality
No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
1. Easily understanding the web site of a bank has effect on my preference for bank          
2 Rapid access to customer services of a bank has effect on my preference for the bank.          
3 Completion of my transaction in a short time has Effect on my preference for bank.          
4 The friendliness and good humor displayed by bank personnel’s determine my preference for the bank          
No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
5. The provision of regular and consistent bank statement by a bank determine my preference for the bank.          
6. Providing consultancy services by the bank through various means (internet, phone call) determines my preference for bank.          
7 Providing a channel through which complaints can be submitted determine my preference for bank          

 

  1. Security
No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
1. Reputation of my preference bank is sound.          
2. Financial performance of my preference bank is sound.          
3. Capital and size of my preference bank is adequate.          
4. E-banking service of my preference bank is secure.          

 

 

No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
5. Customer personal information of my preference bank is protected.          

 

  1. Convenience
No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
1 The availability of widespread branch offices of the bank has effect on my preference for bank.          
2 Less waiting time imposed by a bank determine my preference for the bank.          
3 The widespread of bank branches determine my preference for a bank.          
4 The nearness of bank branches to my location determine my preference for a bank          
5 The widespread of ATM location determine my preference for a bank.          

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Technology
No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
1. Accessibility to online banking of my preference bank.  
2. More users friendly interface on my preference bank.  
3. Response time to the downtime of the ATMs on my preference bank.  
4. Ease of access to bank information on my preference bank.  
5. E-banking service is adequate on my preference bank.  

 

  1. Information Availability
No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
1 The quality of advertisement provided by a bank determines my preference for the bank.          
2 The availability of billboard and posters on bank products/services in strategic locations determine my preference for a bank.          
No. The bank will provide Level of Important
1 2 3 4 5
3 The messages received on banking products; via email and mobile phone determine my preference for a bank.          
4 The widespread circulation of flyers on available banking products/services determine my preference for a bank.          

 

Thanks for your participation.

 

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.0 Introduction

University students consider the type of banks they preferred to apply their bank cards is a worthy concerned issue of current commercial banks. Young generation will be thefresh mainstay of society, banks get the advanced opportunity from young generation could be expected to occupy increased market share in future economic market. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the determinants effect university students when choosing banks’ provided products and services. Besides that, the criterion of banking selection is available provided as reference to present university students, as the standards of scoring the favorability of banks’ products and services. In this chapter, previous authoritative literatures’ finding will support this research to investigate the factors influence university students’ choice on bank’s debit cards selection as well as provide strong evidence in the following study.

 

2.1 Bank Selection Criteria

Increasing competition among commercial banks, Islamic banks and other financial institution, the attractive elements of banks which makes customers are willing to select for their financial transactions has always been the hotspot of social public and banking industry concerned. Investigation conducted in 206 individual customers’ banks selection preference in Bangladesh (Afroza Parvin and RumanaPerveen, 2012) reveals that, among the influencing factors of convenience, special service of deposit and loan transaction, online-banking, responsiveness, reliability, safety and assurance, responsiveness won the highest votes in questionnaires, from the Bangladesh customers perspective, friendly responds from employees is considered the mainly considerable factors that affect their choice of bank selection. A good service quality not only makes customers physical and mental pleasure, but also attracts customers’ understanding and interest in their banking business.

According to Saleh, Rosman and Nani’s(2013) observation of Kelantan in Malaysia, they had selected 6 independents factors in the survey, which are assurance, reliability, responsiveness, convenience, accessibility and value added services, and invited 100 respondents to choose which elements of bank’s characteristic was possible to attract customers to open accounts with happiness financial services in their banks. However, the survey results from representation of Kelantan customers consideration showed that convenience of the bank’s location and services could touch their choices compared with other 5 independent variables, besides that, in their data analysis, they also found that, the convenience of ATM distribution became the most crucial elements which can reduce the time of customers to solve their basic transactions via ATM equipment. Unfortunately, great number of merchants deemed that extra presents could add impressive points in financial services, but such action may not deeply won the customer’s loyalty.

 

2.1 Service Quality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference:

Afroza Parvin and RumanaPerveen (2012) Commercial Bank Selection Process Used by Individual Customers: Factor Analysis on Banks of Bangladesh. Volume–VII, Number–02, July-December, 2012

 

Mohamad Sayuti Md. Saleh , Mohamad Rahimi Mohamad Rosman ,Nur Khashima Nani (2013) Bank Selection Criteria in a Customers’ Perspective. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X. Volume 7, Issue 6 (Jan. – Feb. 2013), PP 15-20www.iosrjournals.org

FACULTY OF BUSINESS

 

 

Guidelines for Project Paper

Master in Business Administration

 

 

 

 

MBA IN BANKING AND FINANCE

MBA IN MANAGEMENT

MBA IN MARKETING

MBA IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

 

Academic year 2014-2015

 

 

  • Introduction

 

The MBA Graduate Project, which is known as a mini-thesis is a compulsory project for the MBA students to complete at the end of their final semester. As such, students should regard their graduate projects as an ideal opportunity and vehicle for integrating what they have learnt during the MBA programme and applying these concepts and skills to a real problem at work. This note aims to provide students with a guide on how to go about the various stages of doing the project and also include information on the formal system devised by the University to supervise and assess projects

 

Module Status:

 

Number of credits: 3 credit hours

 

Level: Compulsory (specialization)

 

Pre-requisites:

 

Completion of 80% of the core modules of the programme including modules in Statistics and Decision Analysis and Research Methodology.

 

Assessment:

 

Research proposal, preliminary literature review and presentation (20%): to be prepared independently prior to the allocation of a dissertation supervisor.

 

Completed and submitted project paper (15,000 – 30,000 words) (80%)

 

Main References:

 

There is no set general text. Reading draws heavily on journal articles and book chapters, according to the research project topic being selected.

 

 

  • Objectives

 

The main objectives of the graduate project are as follows:

 

  • To provide students with an opportunity to draw together and integrate the knowledge gained and the skills developed from the MBA programme;

 

  • To provide students with an opportunity for independent study and to develop an ability to organize work with a view to achieve a specific goal;

 

  • To develop students with skills in business strategy, operations or in similar integrated activities appropriate and relevant to their organizations and their personal development needs and goals; and

 

  • To undertake an academic project based on sound management principles and intellectual reasoning.

 

 

 

  • Initial Project Proposal

 

To give a good foundation and in-depth knowledge on how to do an effective research, students are first required to register for the module in Research Methodology. Upon attending the course, students are expected to submit an initial project or research proposal of the project area to the Module Leader, BEFORE officially registering for the graduate project.

 

When considering the initial project proposal, students should look for a critical and analytical approach to the following:

 

  • Specification of the goals of the project or research
  • Outline of strategy and methodology for achieving goals
  • Literature references with comments as to their relevance
  • Identification of specific project topic and its relation to existing similar work
  • Their understanding of the basic principles underlying the project
  • Foreseeable problems and strategies for resolving them.

 

The initial project or research proposal comprises of three sections:

 

  • Project / Research definition
  • Investigation of Project Background
  • Project Plan

 

The project plan is very important, of which students are assured to achieve the final project objective within a given time.

 

A student who intends to do case writing or corporate/business plan will have to furnish a provisional letter of approval from the selected case company prior to registering for the Graduate Project. Students will inform the selected case company the data and information needed for the report and request permission to do case study.

 

 

  • Project Paper / Thesis Proposal Approval

 

The submitted initial Project Paper / Thesis proposal will be reviewed by the Supervisor who will endorse the proposal to the Dean, Faculty of Business.

 

 

  • Appointment and Change of Supervisor

 

The Dean Faculty of Business will assign appropriate supervisors for students. Students are expected to work closely with the assigned supervisors. However, a student may request a change of supervisor provided that the request is done officially in writing to the Dean of the Faculty of Business.

 

A student who has been given a confirmation on a project and supervisor should proceed by meeting and discussing with the supervisor on the first draft report. It is highly recommended that students keep a project diary or a log book throughout the graduate project. At the very least, this should be checked against his or her weekly objectives and should contain details of what have been learnt and the time taken. A supervisor may ask a student to submit a weekly summary based on the diary or log book since these will provide the supervisor and the student progress of the project. Students will find it useful when it comes to writing the Final Project Report.

 

 

  • Responsibilities of the Supervisors

 

  • 100% evaluation of the Final Project Report

 

  • Advising and guiding the students on the overall direction of the project. Areas to be agreed include:

 

  • Aims of the project
  • Topic area
  • How it will be tackled/broad strategy
  • Project plan
  • Resources/facilities required
  • Student’s strengths and weaknesses in the project area
  • Feasibility of project aims being achieved
  • Preliminary outline, literature/background research
  • Advice on style and format
  • Required academic standards
  • Foreseeable problems

 

 

  • First Draft Report

 

This draft is submitted to the supervisor based on the earlier comments or feedback received on the initial project proposal. The content and format of the report are as follows:

 

 

Chapter 1:  Introduction

 

  • Introduce the subject matter
  • How significant the study
  • Objective of the study
  • Limitation to the study (ability to generalize to the population)

 

 

Chapter II:  Literature review

 

  • Past studies in the subject areas that you are researching
  • Theory/concept/framework/model of study
  • Hypothesis is not recommended

 

 

Chapter III:  Research Methodology

 

  • Data collection method
  • Representativeness / issues of sampling
  • How to conduct interview
  • Describe the questionnaires
  • Validity/reliability of the data
  • Plan of analysis (roughly what you want to do)

 

 

The first draft project should be of reasonable length in total , EXCLUDING appendices, tables and charts.   Students should be aware of the level of academic standard required in the graduate project. Students should also avoid from having too widespread scope of the area. To some extent, students should adjust the specific aim within the context of the level to work expected and the time available. It is preferable to constrain the scope so that the project can be completed without a large number of unanswered questions.

 

 

  • Feedback/Comments from the Supervisor

 

On receipt of feedback from supervisor(s), students will continue to proceed with revising the draft report.  Students are expected to proceed and prepare their report in details by adding the following continuous required chapters:

 

 

Chapter IV:  Results and Discussion

 

 

Chapter V:  Conclusions

 

 

 

  • Submission of the Complete Project Paper / Thesis

 

After revisions on the project paper / thesis, student will end with the final and completed paper, which is to be submitted directly to the respective supervisor for final evaluation.  In any case, if there are minor corrections, students are instructed to revise and resubmit the paper before binding it with a hard cover. Supervisors should only approve the hardbinding of project papers if they are satisfied that the formatting, organization, pagination, etc., of the project paper have met the specifications in the Project Paper Guidelines. Supervisors submit final grade to Dean, Faculty of Business upon signing hardbound copies of the report.

 

Without the hardbound copies, the highest grade a supervisor can give to a student is a C+. Students should submit FOUR (4) hardbound copies of the project paper and 1 electronic copy on a CD to the following:

 

  1. Supervisor
  2. Dean, Faculty of Business

 

A student, with an approval from his or her supervisor, may publish a paper extracted from the graduate project, provided acknowledgement is given to the University. The project paper should be between 15,000-30,000 words (plus or minus 5%). Students intending to submit a graduate project exceeding the stipulated length must submit a written justification to the Dean, Faculty of Business through the Project Paper Supervisor, at least two months BEFORE the date of final submission.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Project Paper Evaluation

 

  • The MBA project paper is assessed as 100% coursework. Upon submission of the project paper. The submission of completed project papers is evaluated based on MBA Project Paper Marking Grid.  Please refer to Appendix L for the assessment criteria.

 

 

  • Final Format of the Project Paper / Thesis

 

A thesis should normally have the following three sections:

 

  • The Preliminary Pages include:
  1. Blank page
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Declaration
  5. Acknowledgements
  6. Dedication (optional)
  7. Abstract
  8. Table of Contents
  9. List of Tables
  10. List of Figures, Illustration, etc
  11. Preface (optional)

 

  • The TEXT should normally be divided into chapters such as:

 

  1. Introduction
  2. Literature Review
  3. Research Methodology
  4. Results and Discussion
  5. Conclusion and/or recommendations

 

 

11.3   The REFERENCES consists of:

 

  1. Appendices (optional)
  2. References
  3. Glossary (optional)
  4. Notes (optional)
  5. Index (optional)
  6. Publication List
  7. Blank page

 

 

The various pages in a thesis should normally be arranged in the following manner:

 

  1. Blank page
  2. Title page (Counted as lower-case Roman numeral “i” but not numbered)
  3. Copyright Page (always numbered lower-case Roman numeral “ii”)
  4. Declaration (numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral)
  5. Acknowledgements (if any; numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral)
  6. Dedication (if any; numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral)
  7. Abstract (numbered consecutively with a Roman numeral)
  8. Table of Contents (numbered consecutively with Roman numeral(s))
  9. List of Tables (numbered consecutively with Roman numeral(s))
  10. List of Figures, Illustration, etc (numbered consecutively with Roman numeral(s))
  11. Preface (if any; numbered consecutively with Roman numeral(s))
  12. Text (including introduction; first page always numbered with Arabic numeral “1”;        pages numbered consecutively)
  13. Appendices (If any; Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text)
  14. References (Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text)
  15. Glossary (if any; Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text)
  16. Notes (If any; Arabic numerals, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text)
  17. Index (If any; Arabic numeral, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text)
  18. Publication list (if any; Arabic numera, pages numbered consecutively with rest of text)
  19. Blank pages

 

 

  1. Preliminary Pages

 

 

  1. Title Page

 

The form and contents of the title page must follow the format of the example given in Appendix A. Title should be capitalised and double-spaced. The month and year cited on the title page are the month and year of thesis submission. The title page is counted as page “i”, however, the number is not printed.

 

 

  1. Copyright

 

Please refer to the format Appendix B.

 

 

  1. Declaration

 

Please refer to the format Appendix C.

 

 

  1. Acknowledgement

 

This is a brief acknowledgement of assistance given to the author in researching and writing the thesis. Its page should be numbered with consecutive lower-case Roman numeral. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12.

 

 

  1. Dedication (if any)

 

Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12.

 

 

  1. Abstract

 

This is a summary of the thesis, which will state the problem, the methods of investigation and the general conclusion. An abstract should be approximately 300 words. Line spacing is one and half spacing. The paragraph after that should be Double-spacing. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12. Please refer to the format Appendix D.

 

 

  1. Table of Contents

 

This must include entries for preliminary pages (copyright, abstract, dedication, and acknowledgement, lists of tables and figures, and preface), text (main divisions and subdivisions of the thesis), appendices, notes, references and index. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12. Please refer to the format Appendix E.

 

 

  1. List of Tables

 

This provides the list of table numbers, full title and page numbers. Tables must be numbered consecutively in order of appearance. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12.

 

 

  1. List of Figures

 

Figures (i.e. graphs, photographs and other illustrative material) are to be listed on a separate page. Number, title and page are to be given. Figures must be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively (Fig 1,2,3 or 2.1,2.2,2.3, etc) in order of appearance and captioned. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12.

 

 

  1. Preface

 

This is a brief explanatory statement of why the author came to study the subject of the thesis. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12.

 

 

 

  1. Text

 

The first page of the text is always numbered Arabic numeral “1”. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 12. Text contains the chapters of the thesis, in logical order, and should normally include:

 

  1. Introduction

 

Introductory chapter introduces the research background and problem statements that indicate their importance. It should also contain the research objectives, contribution to knowledge and brief description of the organisation of the thesis.

 

  1. Literature Review

 

Critical review of literature related to the topic of the thesis meant to act as a base for the experimental/analytical section of the thesis. Literature selected must be relevant, up to date, analysed and synthesised logically. Review should contain critical evaluation and discussion of other related research.

 

  1. Research Methodology

 

Methods and techniques used in the research. For social science, a theoretical or conceptual framework should be included. As for engineering and sciences, this may include, but not limited to, chapter or chapters which describe the theoretical development, hypothesis description, methodology, experimental design and standard procedure description. This section may be written in one or two chapters.

 

  1. Results and Discussion

 

Data analysis presents a complete account of results and analyses of the study in the form of figures, tables or text so that the key information is highlighted. It may consist of more than one chapter depending on the number of experimental work and/or parametric studies conducted. Each chapter on Results should contain discussion, which discusses the results of the study in relation to the hypotheses and highlights the main findings, their significance and implications.

 

  1. Conclusion

 

Summarises the findings of the study in line with the objectives set.

 

 

Please refer to Appendix F on the layout of the Chapter.

 

 

 

 

 

REMINDER:

 

The last paragraph of any page should comprise at least two lines of text. Any heading appearing near the bottom of a page should be followed by at least two lines of text. If this is not possible, the heading and the line should be continued in the next page.

 

If the last paragraph of a page has to be continued on the next page, there must be at least two lines of the text appearing on the next page.

 

 

 

  • REFERENCES

 

  1. Appendices (Optional)

 

The pages should be numbered continuously with the rest of the text. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size is 10 with One and a half spacing.

 

 

  1. References

Every reference quoted or cited in the thesis must be included in the list of references and numbered accordingly. References should be ordered alphabetically.

 

Please refer to Appendix G on the Citation style for references in text.

 

Please refer to Appendix H on the Citation style for reference list.

 

Please refer to Appendix I on the Formatting of Reference.

 

Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 10 with one and a half spacing. There should be Double spacing between entries.

 

 

  1. Glossary

 

The pages should be numbered continuously with the rest of the text. Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size is 10 with One and a half spacing.

 

 

  1. Notes

 

The footnotes may be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis, or throughout each chapter.

 

Typeface to be used is Times New Roman font size 8 single spacing with a double spacing between entries.

  

 

 

 

 

 

  • SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE PROJECT PAPER/ THESIS

 

12.1   Number of Copies

 

A candidate is required to submit FOUR (4) hardbound copies of the thesis in black buckram and an electronic thesis to EU within the time frame stipulated by the Board of Examiners. A copy of the thesis will be placed in the Library and the respective Faculty.

 

 

12.2   Length of Thesis

 

MBA Project Paper:  Should normally be within 15,000 – 30,000 words

Master Thesis: Should normally be within 20,000 – 60,000 words.

Ph.D. Thesis: Should normally be within 40,000 – 100,000 words.

  

12.3   Language of Thesis

 

Thesis must be written in English with British spelling used throughout the thesis.

Final oral defence (viva-voce) will be conducted solely in English.

 

 

12.4   Typeface and Font Size

 

Typeface to be used is Times New Roman. The same typeface should be used throughout the thesis. Font size of 12 point should be used for the main body of the text, which should not be script or italic. Line spacing is one and a half spacing. The next paragraph should be Double-spacing and start with a paragraph indent of 12.7 mm. A laser or other high quality printer is recommended.

 

 

12.5   Paper

 

High quality bond paper A4 size, 80 g/m2 must be used for the two bound copies. This paper should be white in colour, acid free and “non-erasable” kind.

 

 

12.6   Corrections

 

Corrections of typographical errors, or changes in the text, figures or tables, must be made as cleanly and invisibly as possible. Correction fluid is not to be used. Corrections should be made on the original before recopying or reprinting the problem page.

 

 

12.7   Margins and Spacing

 

The margin on the document must measure according to the below specification:

 

Top – 20mm                      Left – 40mm

Bottom – 40mm                Right – 25mm

 

Text should be typed, one and a half-spaced, on one side of the paper only. All information excluding page numbers must be within the text area. All typing, print, illustrations, etc. should be on one side of the paper only.

 

 

 

 

12.8   Pagination

 

Page numbers are to be placed at least 15 mm from the edge of the page at the bottom centre of the page.

 

Every page except the title page must be numbered. Title page is “i” but is not numbered.

 

Preliminary pages are to be numbered in lower case Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv etc);

The text pages are to be numbered in Arabic numerals and all pages must be numbered consecutively and continuously, irrespective of volumes.

 

 

12.9   Covers and Binding

 

The thesis should be bound in black buckram with gold lettering

 

Typeface to be used is Arial Narrow

 

Font size to be used for: 18

 

 

12.9.1   Front Cover of the Thesis (Appendix J)

 

Title of thesis, name of candidate, degree awarded, name of university, and month & year of thesis submission should be in uppercase.

 

 

Spine of the Thesis (Appendix K)

 

Name of candidate, title of thesis, degree awarded and year of thesis submission should be in uppercase. Direction of lettering – run from the top of spine.

 

 

12.10     Photographs

 

Photographs should be black and white whenever possible. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. When photographs are to be used, they are to be scanned. Using tape, glue or any type of adhesive to insert photographs is not acceptable. Pages with photographs should be copied on a colour photocopier.

 

 

12.11     Quotations

 

  • Short quotations (less than 40 words) are incorporated into the text and enclosed by double quotation marks (“”).
  • Long quotations of 40 or more words are displayed in a double-spaced block of typewritten lines with no quotation marks. The APA suggests that you do not single space; however, some instructors will require that indented quotations be single-spaced, especially when quoting poetry, which loses some of its formal characteristics when double-spaced. Indent five spaces from the left margin and type the entire quotation on the indented margin without the usual opening paragraph indentation. If the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second and additional paragraphs five spaces from the already indented margin, approximately an inch from the left margin.
  • If you have a quotation within a block quotation, enclose it in double (“) quotation marks. If you have a quotation within a short quote (one incorporated within the text), enclose it within single quotation marks (‘).
  • Ellipsis points are used to indicate omitted material. Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate omission within a sentence (…). To indicate an omission between sentences type a punctuation mark for the sentence followed by three spaced periods (. …) (? …) (! …). Your word processing software probably provides especially typed characters that will create ellipses that will not be broken, inappropriately, at the end of a line.
  • When a period or comma occurs with closing quotation marks, place the period or comma within the closing quotation mark. Put any other punctuation mark outside the quotation marks unless that mark is part of the quoted material.

 

12.12     Non-paper formats

 

12.12.1 Labels

 

  • Author’s name
  • Degree date
  • Copyright notice

 

 

12.12.2 Videotapes

 

  • length of videotape (in minutes)
  • silent or sound
  • colour or black and white
  • width of tape (e.g. 19 mm or 13 mm)
  • programme segments
  • format (e.g. NTSC, PAL, SECAM)

 

12.12.3 Computer disks*

 

  • Operating system
  • density
  • hardware required (if appropriate)

 

 

                                *All disks should be write-protected.

 

 

 

 

13.0    SUBMISSION OF PROJECT PAPER / THESIS

 

 

Candidates intending to submit their theses should comply with the following procedures:

 

  1. A candidate shall give three (3) months for Master’s and six (6) months for Ph.D. notice of his/her intention to submit his/her thesis for examination in the prescribed form.

 

  1. On completion of the research, a candidate shall submit:

 

  • Five copies (for Ph.D.)
  • Two copies (for Master’s)

of the comb-binded thesis to EU for examination.

 

  1. A candidate shall submit to the EU Four (4) hard bound copies of the approved thesis and an electronic thesis within the period stipulated by the exam board, after successful defense of the thesis.

 

 

 

14.0   Extension of Submission of the Project Paper/Thesis

 

A student may seek extension for submission of the project paper by writing to the Dean, Faculty of Business through his/her Project Paper Supervisor.  In requesting for an extension, the student should state the reason/s why the extension is being sought or why the request should be approved.

 

The Dean, upon the recommendation of the Project Paper Supervisor may approve the request for extension to complete the project paper, provided however that such extension should not be beyond one semester from the date of the initial final submission.

 

In the event the student fails to submit the completed project paper within the extension period, the student will have to register again for the Project Paper.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.0    List of Supervisors

 

 

No. Lecturer Contact details
1. Prof. Dr. Sivakumar Velayutham 011-23289045 /

[email protected]

2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Evelita E. Celis  +601112826578 /

[email protected]

3. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jason Lee Wai Chow +6012-5616509 /

[email protected]

4. Dr. Christo Selvan +60105110456 /

[email protected]

5. Dr. Benedict Valentine 012-3171621/

[email protected]

6. Mr. Vigneswararao 012-3390025 /

[email protected]

7. Ms. Seetha Nesaratnam  +60122174346/

[email protected]

8. Ms Siti Nurhidayah Mohd Roslen 017-6471186

[email protected]

9. Mr. Alaz Goh Lee Cheng +6012033661 /

[email protected]

10. Mr. Pramanathan 019-2581918 /

[email protected]

11. Ms. Mandy Mok Kim Man +60168056714 /

[email protected]

12. Mr. Lau Cheng Yong 019-2927211 /

[email protected]

13. Mr. Beddan @Veemalan A/L Veerasamy 012-6925192 /

[email protected]

14. Mr. William Lok  +0126780782 /

[email protected]

15. Ms Ann Balasingam 017-6568515 /

[email protected]

16. Mr. Bernard Lim Jit Heng 012-6182640 /

[email protected]

17. Ms Mary Pang 012-2308395 /

[email protected]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16.0    Recommended Project Paper Timetable

 

No. Week/Date Activity Assignment Comments
1 Week 1-3 REGISTRATION FOR GRADUATE PROJECT PAPER

 

Submission of Initial Project

Proposal to Module leader (e.g. based on proposal from

Research Methodology course)

Please make an appointment with your supervisor for further discussion
2 Week 4-6

 

Meeting with supervisor on the first draft Discussion on the first draft

paper based on the comments received from the supervisor on the Initial project proposal.

 
3 Week 7-9 Prepare first draft copy based on the given comments Write first draft to submit to

supervisor

 

If you have not decided on a topic by this time, you may consider withdrawing from the course
4 Week 9 SUBMISSION OF THE FIRST DRAFT Submission to Supervisor

 

The draft paper should cover three  chapters (as stated in the guidelines) for comments from the supervisor
5 Week 10-11 Meeting and discussion with supervisor Supervisor sends feedback/ comments on the first draft.  
6 Week 12-13 Revise the draft paper based on the given comments    
7 Week 14

 

Due Date:

 

SUBMISSION OF THE FINAL DRAFT PROJECT PAPER (2 copies)

Submission to Module Leader / Supervisor  
8 Week 15 Supervisor  SUBMITS PROJECT PAPER to the Dean, Faculty of Business   Dean, Faculty of Business assigns Research Examiner (2nd examiner)
9 Week 16 – 18 2nd Examiner Reviews and makes comment/suggestions   Student amends report

Accordingly

10 Week 19

 

Due Date:

SUBMISSION OF A COMPLETE  PROJECT REPORT

Student submits four  (4) hardbound copies of project report and 1 electronic copy on a CD to Supervisor / Module Leader  
11 Week 20 Final Grade from supervisor and 2nd examiner

 

Supervisor:

·    Submits final grade to the Exam Unit together with two (2)  bound copy of the project paper

·    Submits four (4) hardbound copies of the project Paper to Dean, Faculty of Business

·    Faculty AA distributes copies to

o  Head, Centre for Graduate Studies & Research

o  Library

o  Faculty Resource Room

The Project Paper shall be kept in the MBA Programme Resource Room for exhibit and other relevant purposes.

 

The softcopy of the Project paper shall be kept by the Librarian for future references (e-journal publications, etc.)

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

 

Guidelines

 

  • Appendix A –           Thesis Title page
  • Appendix B –           Copyright page
  • Appendix C –           Declaration page
  • Appendix D –           Abstract page
  • Appendix E –           Table of contents page
  • Appendix F –           Layout of Chapter
  • Appendix G –           Citation Style for Reference in Text
  • Appendix H –           New Citation in Reference List
  • Appendix I –           Formatting of Reference
  • Appendix J –           Front Cover
  • Appendix K –           Spine of Thesis
  • Appendix L –           MBA Project Paper Marking Grid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THESIS TITLE

 

 

 

 

                                      BY

 

                                         AUTHOR’S NAME

 

 

 

 

 

THESIS SUBMITTED IN FULFILMENT OF THE

 

REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF

 

Master in Business Administration

Banking and Finance

 

 

in the

 

Faculty of Business

 

 

 

                                          NILAI UNIVERSITY

 

MALAYSIA

 

YEAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the Nilai University Intellectual Property Regulations. Due acknowledgement shall always be made of the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this thesis.

 

© Name of candidate, Year of Thesis submission

All rights reserved

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECLARATION

 

 

I hereby declare that the work has been done by myself except quotation and citations, which have been duly acknowledged, and no portion of the work contained in this Thesis has been submitted in support of any application for any other degree or qualification on this or any other university or institution of learning.

 

 

_______________

Author’s name

Date:

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

 

A Microwave Anechoic Chamber has been developed at the Department of Engineering, Nilai University, for monostatic and bistatic radar cross section measurements.  The structure of the chamber is a quarter section geodesic dome with a 12-foot radius and raised 3 feet above the floor.  An antenna railing system is installed inside the chamber.  It consists of 6 rails, 30 degrees apart in azimuth angle around the dome.  The antennas can be moved along the rails in the elevation direction, with the microwave beam pointing at the centre of the dome where the target is located.  This design enables a very large combination of incident and scattering angles in bistatic measurements.  Four transmit antennas are fixed at different elevation angles next to one of the antenna rails.  Using an azimuth-over-elevation positioner as the pedestal for the target, and by positioning the movable antenna along that rail beside those fixed transmit antennas, monostatic measurements with incident angles ranging from 0° to 90° can be accomplished.

 

A vector network analyser is utilised to measure the amplitude and phase of the radar returns.  GPIB interface bus is used to control various hardware components as well as to perform data acquisitions.  A computer program has been written to automate the measurement system.  Data are stored in raw format and processed later with a dedicated software so that different processing methods and parameters can be applied.  The broadband measurement allows the conversion of frequency-domain data to a band-limited impulse response of the target of interest.  Time-domain gating technique is used to remove the spurious signal in the time neighbourhood of the target.

 

A number of monostatic calibration techniques have been considered.  The Isolated Antenna Calibration Technique (Surname, Year) is used in the study to certify the measurement accuracy, polarisation isolation performance, time stability as well as the total system sensitivity.  Some bistatic calibration techniques available in the open literature are also reviewed.  The Conducting Sphere Calibration Technique (Surname, Year) is selected to evaluate the bistatic performance of the measurement system.

 

An extended target with randomly distributed vertical dielectric cylinders over a metallic ground plane has been fabricated.  Although the radar range does not satisfy the far field criterion, a technique to measure such target at short distance has been utilised and the measurement results are compared with calculations from a theoretical model by Karam et. al. (Year).

 

The quietness of the anechoic chamber is also evaluated using the Free Space Voltage-Standing-Wave-Ratio field probe technique.  An alternative method to derive the reflectivity level at the quiet zone is proposed.  This method has the advantage that the reflectivity level can be calculated directly from the recorded standing wave curve in contrast to the conventional method, which requires the use of a tabulated graph. Nevertheless, it gives a result, which generally indicates a poorer performance, which means that a more stringent evaluation can be obtained.

 

 

 

 

 

 

62 pages / 17050 words

 

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Style:
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