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This paper is too long only 7 pages needed please can you rewrite it with no plagiarism to just bring it down to 7 pages and with appropriate literature. The guide is attached to it to .



Single subject design research

Stress Management












Everyone is affected by stress because it is part of normal human life. Environmental Changes cause the body to react and adjust and respond emotionally, physically, or mentally.  Stress is also defined as the body’s response to unsafe situations, although a person may experience good or bad types of stress. Negative stress arises when an individual continues to face the stressing event without relaxation or relief between those challenges (Choudhury, 2012). Consequently, overworks the person involved in the strenuous activity, giving rise to the buildup of tension. This tension may result in physical symptoms like chest pain. High blood pressure, headaches, insomnia, and upset stomach. Various studies have shown that job-related pressure is the primary cause of stress among American adults, and it continues to escalate over the years. This article is focused on reviewing stress-related literature as well as to gain deeper insight on how it can be managed. Additionally, this article seeks to examine some adverse health effects and the prevalence of some lifelong disorders associated with constant worry. By the end of 2020, the World Health Organization estimates that stress-related disorders will be the leading cause of deaths among American citizens.


Like many people living in in the United States of America, I have been going through some of life’s stressful moments until recently when I was diagnosed of acute type of stress. First, the doctor identified three types of stress; acute, episodic acute, and chronic stress. According to the doctor, mine was acute stress which is the most common affecting majority of Americans. This type of stress causes me to react too quickly and immediately to sudden and unexpected events, demands, or challenges as it triggers my flight-or-flight body response. My body’s biological reactionsare usually triggered by pressures of arguments with friends, bad news like an accident, and unintended mistakes at my place of work. However, this form of stress would arise not only in negative situations but in joyful moments as well, such as when I stroll in the mall with friends or freak out during a field trip. Since my place of work requires critical decision making and thinking, as well as my capability to operate in teams, it is difficult for me to reach my full potential with this type of stress because of my being less attentive and more susceptible to mistakes. As a result, my competencies are affected.

Conceptual Framework:

Research question: To what extent does exercise affect stress?

This research paper seeks to respond to the research question above by determining if exercise significantly affects stress. It will attempt to answer the question of whether exercise can effectively be used in stress management.The independent variable in this study is exercise and the dependent variable in this study is stress


H0: Exercise has no effect on stress

H1: Exercise has an effect on stress

It is hypothesized that the more consistent you are with exercise, the less stress you will experience.

The null hypothesis (Ho) for this paper states that exercise has no effect on stress indicating that going to exercise regularly, will have no influence on one’s stress level. However, the alternative hypothesis (H1) states that exercise will have a significant effect on stress based on the belief that exercise plays a crucial role in managing the physiological fluctuations that are caused by stress.The concepts explored in this study are stress and exercise.  For the purpose of this research project, thedefinitionof stress will be measured by the level of feeling of physical or emotional tension that comes in events of pressure, frustration, and nervousness. To be precise, the acute stress that I suffer from refers to the typical type of stress that affects the majority of people, but then again, it disappears quickly. Independent variable will be operationally defined as the exercise which reflects the number of minutes spent per week in exercising.

Foreseeable problems

To maintain a good mental health, I must incorporate exercise in my life. However, there are many foreseeable challenges that may influence my active participation. They include: Commitment to exercise regimen, Cost and accessibility and my socio-economic status can be problematic because as a low-income earner, I tend to use my income strictly on basic necessities, and spending money to access exercise facility would be considered luxury. Accessibility is also another factor due to my geographical location that requires transport to make it to a nearby city.

Control variables in this study include that element which can affect the outcomes of the experimentation. In my case, stress and exercise are the main issue. The elements that can affect my ability to cope up with stress through exercise include transportation to the exercise facility, lack of motivation, and illness.

Literature review (stress)

The dependent variable of this study is stress. Psychological science defines stress as the feeling of mental tension and pressure and that Stress is either caused by external forces or internal perceptions of a person. Some control variables affected by stress are gender and race. The following results are according to a study that examined the race related, gender related, and generic stress. Giscombe´ &Lobel, 2005; Moradi et al., 2003; conducted a Multidimensional study on 189 socioeconomically diverse African American women aged 21 to 78 African American females. The primary aim was to “represent the conceptual and empirical association of race-related stress, gender-related stress, and generic stress through a single, multidimensional stress construct. Descriptive statistics showed that 99.9% of participant experienced some race related stress, 91. 6% experienced gender related stress, and 94.7% experienced generic, or health related stress.  (Moradi & Subich, 2003; King, 2003) conducted another study on sexism and stress in women of color and the result was that sexism is correlated with racism and psychological stress. They also reported systemic racism, unfair or biased treatment to be a contributor to stress in this population. A recent study of African American women found that 93% had experienced racism or discrimination directly or indirectly, thus predisposing them to stress.  African American women when compared with the general population of White descent, were found to suffer more stress. Literature finds racism as “a specific type of stress that distinctively affects the well-being of African Americans” (Clark, Anderson, Clark, & Williams, 1999; Williams, Neighbors, & Jackson, 2003). The study also finds a positive correlation between poverty, anxiety symptoms, aggression and stress (Wolff,2009).  Giscombe´ &Lobel, 2005; Moradi et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2003).

Stress can affect the ability of people to have healthy lifestyles or make good choices because of the devastating effects on the body.Stress is a prevalent phenomenon or condition among many people world over. some of the reasonsfor the widespread of stress and stress-relatedailmentaround the globe areattributed to the complexities of human being’s personal, ecological, and social environment, diversity in stress expression, and simultaneous interaction with issues surrounding humanity. Positive stress can facilitate performance or improve bio psychological health. Besides, stress can be perceived as a significant factor in adaptation motivation and response to the surrounding environment. However, negative stress can result in social, psychological, and biological problems and even cause serious physical harm to people.

This literature review sheds light on my stress as it conditionally manifests itself positively or negatively based on the certain situation. Sometimes I get stressed when ignored by a friend or when offensive things are said to me, but I also get stressed out even when I am having fun like swimming or even when watching a movie. The truth is that I perceive various situations differently, especially in times of unpredictability and uncontrollability. However, at least, I understand that stress has a positive side, and I can turn stressful moments into motivation and learn how to adapt in differentsituation. The literature review above on stress shows that stress is not necessarily an agent of psychological and health problems, but as a factor that can stimulate motivation and the ability to adapt in the environment if perceived positively

Literature review (exercise)

This paper believes that exercise is a tool that is crucial for physical fitness and good health which can protect an individual from chronic diseases like cancer, heart diseases, and stress. For the purposes of the project, a healthy exercise will be operationally defined as, “a subset of planned, structured, and repetitive physical actions, aimed at improving or maintaining physical fitness, and  includes at least three exercise sessions per week at a moderate intensity” America Center for Sports Medicine(ACSM, 2013).

Some variables that are impacted by the independent variable (exercise) in this study are psychological health and physical health. Many people who are stressed consider breathing exercises like running, boxing, and yoga sessions as helpful stress-relieving techniques. Although physicians recommend these exercises as ways of stress management, it has been very difficult for people who are stressed to incorporate these regimens.Studies have frequently identified exercise as an important tool for enhancing a range of physical indices from balance, bone density, strength, and endurance to lipid profiles, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health (Hogan & Mata, 2013; Thompson et al., 2003). When people are too busy or affected by occupational pressures, they find it hard to maintain physical fitness as it takes time to include in a busy day schedule. Generally, this leads to a less healthy life style.

According to a study by America Center for Sports Medicine ACSM, a lot of people who are stressed and routinely use exercise, there is noticeable difference in theiremotionally and physically well-being; they show a sense of calmness, positive attitude, and often smile. What struck the researchers was how long the effect will last,one good workout might lift one’s mood but regularexercise at a moderate intensity seems to change the overall emotional state.In a clinical trial study conducted by Public Health (2014),Three hundred thirty eight participants (212 women, 126 men) were enrolled in a 12 month exercise group of which, 33 were in control group, (17 women & 16 men). Stress symptoms and mental health were measured using questionnaire before and after the exercise. Statistical analysis showed 16%decrease in signs and symptoms of stress, 8% increasein mental health resources and 7% increase in cardiorespiratory function. These changes remained positive for the next 12 months follow-up. This new finding suggests prolonged effect including protection against future stress and anxiety across all age groups. Past studies have shown that Physical activity and exercise can be used to promote health and reduce risk of disease (Rosenthal& Alter, 2012). According to experts, exercise havealso been identified as a huge factor that helps in decreasing surges of stress hormones, cortisol which lead to anxiety, depressions, heart diseases, and premenstrual disorder.Studies have shown that high level of cortisol was associated with depressive disorder which was directly linked to high level of stress. One of such studies was done byKudielka (2007) which investigated the biological pathways linking stress and health outcome through salivary amylase. In another study, Pruessnerand Hellhammer(2003)conducted a study on “depressive symptoms and stress Levels in 40 healthy young men during which subjects were monitored for a period of 4 weeks, and the goal of the study was to” investigate the association of self-reported depressive symptomatology with early morning free cortisol levels and their relationship to the measures of stress”.  Result showed that high level of cortisol was associated with depressive disorder and there was a direct link to high level of stress.However, this research was limited to men only based on the confounding variables in females; menstrual, and birth control medications.A cross sectional study is required for this to eliminate biases that currently exist in the present study, and to include socioeconomic status, and all demographic.

The effectiveness of exercise in ensuring mental and physical health is evident in various literaturereviewed. Most results show that people who exercise,exhibit less depression, less stress, and minimal symptoms of mental health.This research however, showed biasness by not including female because of their biological mark up, thus, stating that they are surrounded by a lot of  confounds; menstrual and family planning pills.

Project frame work

One of the key purposes of this project is to adopt data-driven and evidence-based practices in managing the acute stress that I was recently diagnosed with. My ultimate goal is to exercise at least 3 times a day for 10 weeks to see the effect of such exercise on my stress.  In order to achieve this objective, I will enroll in an exercise gym. To ensure strict adherence and compliance, I will activate an alarm system on my phone that will serve as a reminder to go to the gym at least three times a day; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 11 am.

This type of exercise regimen is supported by American College of Sports Medicine. The college believes that; “any exercise intervention to include at least three exercise sessions per week of at least 15 minutes or more with a duration at moderate intensities for such intervention to be effective”. ACSM (2015). The project research question that guided my personal study was: Does putting an alarm system reminder on my phone will make me go to the gym? The dependent variable of this project research question is going to the gym and the independent variable is a reminder alarm. Control variables will include mental health factors (depressed thoughts, feeling nervous, anxious), environmental factors (busy schedule school assignments, transportation). I do not anticipate any problems implementing the research study

I will collect data through the personal wellbeing tool created for this project. The personal wellbeing tool will be used to collect data on my overall wellbeing such as frequency and severity of my emotional state (thoughts, nervousness, happiness,), physical health (upset-stomach, illness, pain, headaches, sleep patterns, and eating behaviors) and psychological (depressed, self-esteem, restlessness, sleep-pattern). This tool will be filled out every week for ten weeks, three weeks during the baseline period and seven weeks during the intervention period. This tool will also be used to collect additional data that could arise throughout the course of the study, like the data regarding confounds and the behavior of the dependent and independent variables. I will utilize personal journal to provide a more detailed explanation of my experiences with exercise and time spent exercising. All the personal wellbeing tools, my personal informationand the journal, will be locked in a folder in my personal computer throughout the course of the study and after with a username and password that only I will have access to.The logistical challenges that might arise when collecting and storing data will includeremembering to enter data into the personal Wellbeing tool each week, writing the journal and maintaining data security. Another challenge is the estimation of variables in the self-reported data.  Sincemost of the data collected is subjective, there is no way to very verify the reliability of such information, I have to estimate


Most of the data I collected is subjective like; amount of sleep, a lot homework, this will be a limitation of my study. Other limitation is that it is a single subject design with one subject, and I cannot generalize the results to other subjects because of the small number of subjects.


I used a validated questionnaire to collect data for this study. The questionnaire consisted of questions focusing on physical health, depression and anxiety. Data for both the dependent and independent variables were documented for the entire 10 weeksto be used for the analysis of this project.I collected data on my overall wellbeing such as frequency and severity of my physical, depression, anxiety and mental well-being. I included three questions about stress, happiness, and transportation. These additional questions will account for the variable of concern and willalso account for control variables. All the personal wellbeing tools with my personal information will be locked in a folder in my personal computer with a username and password that only I will have access to.








Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., & Williams, D. R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans. American Psychologist, 54, 805– 816.

Choudhury, K. (2012). Workplace stress. Managing Workplace Stress, 1-5. doi:10.1007/978-81-   322-0683-5_1

Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130,


Jackson, F. M. Hogue, C. R., & Phillips, M. T. (2005). The development of a race and gender-specific stress measure for African-American women: Jackson, Hogue, Phillip


King, K. R. (2003). Racism or sexism? Attributional ambiguity and simultaneous membership in multiple oppressed groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 223–247.


Kudielka, B. M., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2007). Ten Years of Research with the

Trier Social Stress Test–Revisited.

Kettunen, O., Vuorimaa, T., &Vasankari, T. (2015). A 12-month exercise intervention decreased stress

Symptoms and increased mental resources among working adults-results perceived

after a 12-month follow-upPublic Health. 2014. International Journal of

Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health28(1), 157.

Moradi, B., & Subich, L. M. (2003). A concomitant examination of the relations of perceived racist and sexist events to psychological distress for African American women. The Counseling Psychologist, 431, 451– 469.

Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. (2006). Strategic Plan for Health Disparities Research, FY 2002–2006. Retrieved July 31, 2006 from Women’s Health. (2006). Health problems of African American women. Retrieved July 31, 2006, from minority/africanamerican/


Pruessner, M. , Hellhammer, D. H. , Pruessner, J. C. &Lupien, S. J. (2003). Self-Reported

Depressive Symptoms and Stress Levels in Healthy Young Men: Associations With

the Cortisol Response to Awakening. Psychosomatic Medicine.

Rosenthal, T., & Alter, A. (2012). Occupational stress and hypertension. Journal of the American  

                 Society of Hypertension6(1), 2-22.

Shahsavarani, A. M., Abadi, E. A., &Kalkhoran, M. H. (2015). Stress: Facts and Theories             through Literature Review. international journal of medical reviews.


In this portion of the assignment, students must compose a paper that addresses the following areas:


Conceptual framework:

  • What is the problem that you are trying to address in this project?
  • Why is this something you want to change?
  • What is the central research question for this study?
  • What is your hypothesis for this study?
  • What is dependent variable in your study?
  • What is the independent variable in this study?
  • How are you, for the purposes of this study, defining your independent variable and your dependent variable?
  • What are some potential control variables that you want to account for in this study?
  • Do you foresee any problems in doing this study or implementing the intervention?

Literature review:

Use a minimum of five scientific journals found in the Adams Library database to answer the following questions:

  • What does existing literature tell us about your independent variable?
  • What does existing literature tell us about your dependent variable?
  • What does existing literature tell us about the relationship, if any, between your independent and dependent variables?
  • What does existing literature tell us about potential control variables in your study? How do they influence your independent and/or dependent variables?


*Be sure to describe any significant limitations that are present in the studies you cite.



  • What additional questions did you add to the tool and why did you add these questions?
  • What intervention did you decide upon and why did you choose this intervention?
  • How will you collect the data? Where? When?
  • How will you store data and keep it secure?
  • What logistical challenges might come up for you when you are collecting data?












I am using this research design in an attempt to change a behavior, and wishes to document the change. I will serve as both the control, and the treatment subject. I would need to establish a baseline of how frequently this behavior occurred. I will count the number of times something occurs in a given time periodI will measure many disruptions occurred for 7 days every week for three weeks.







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